"Now, however, weface an Age of Discontinuity in world economy and tech nology. We might succeed in making it an age of great economic growth as weil. But the one thing that is certain so far is that it will be a period of change-in technology and in economic policy, in industry structures and in economic theo ry, in the knowledge needed to govern and manage, and in economic issues. While we have been busy finishing the great nineteenth-century economic ed ijice, the foundations have shifted beneath our feet." Peter F. Drucker, 1968 The A~e Qf DiscQntinuity, p. 10 This project has had a lQng gestatiQn period, probably ultimately dating to a YQuthful QbsessiQn with watershed divides and bQundaries. My awareness Qf the problem Qf discQntinuity in eCQnQmics dates tQ my first enCQunter with the capi tal theQry paradQxes in the late 1960s, the fruits Qf which can be seen in Chapter 8 Qf this book. This awareness led tQ a frostratiQn Qver the apparent lack Qf a mathematics Qf discQntinuity, a lack that was in the process of rapidly being QverCQme at that time.
This book is concerned with the development of the understanding of the relational structures of information, knowledge, decision–choice processes of problems and solutions in the theory and practice regarding diversity and unity principles of knowing, science, non-science, and information–knowledge systems through dualistic-polar conditions of variety existence and nonexistence. It is a continuation of the sequence of my epistemic works on the theories on fuzzy rationality, info-statics, info-dynamics, entropy, and their relational connectivity to information, language, knowing, knowledge, cognitive practices relative to variety identification–problem–solution dualities, variety transformation–problem–solution dualities, and variety certainty–uncertainty principle in all areas of knowing and human actions regarding general social transformations. It is also an economic–theoretic approach in understanding the diversity and unity of knowing and science through neuro-decision–choice actions over the space of problem–solution dualities and polarities. The problem–solution dualities are argued to connect all areas of knowing including science and non-science, social science, and non-social-science into unity with diversities under neuro-decision–choice actions to support human existence and nonexistence over the space of static–dynamic dualities. The concepts of diversity and unity are defined and explicated to connect to the tactics and strategies of decision–choice actions over the space of problem–solution dualities. The concepts of problem and solution are defined and explicated not in the space of absoluteness but rather in the space of relativity based on real cost–benefit conditions which are shown to be connected to the general parent–offspring infinite process, where every solution generates new problem(s) which then generates a search for new solutions within the space of minimum–maximum dualities in the decision–choice space under the principle of non-satiation over the space of preference–non-preference dualities with analytical tools drawn from the fuzzy paradigm of thought which connects the conditions of the principle of opposites to the conditions of neuro-decision–choice actions in the zone of variety identifications and transformations. The Monograph would be useful to all areas of Research, Learning and Teaching at Advanced Stages of Knowing and Knowledge Production.
Other approaches are based on considering (1) periodic changes in structure as for processes of self-organisation; (2) non-periodic but coherent changes in structure, as for processes of emergence; (3) the quantum level of description. Papers in the book study the problem considering its transdisciplinary nature, i.e., systemic properties studied per se and not within specific disciplinary contexts. The aim of these studies is to outline a transdisciplinary theory of change in systemic properties. Such a theory should have simultaneous, corresponding and eventually hierarchical disciplinary aspects as expected for a general theory of emergence.
Das vielbändige Handbuch der Physik, herausgegeben von Siegfried Flügge, ist wesentlicher Bestand in jeder einschlägigen Bibliothek. Mit seinen herausragenden, teilweise epochemachenden Beiträgen, den umfassenden Überblicken und zahllosen Faktensammlungen stellt es weiterhin eine erstklassige Referenzquelle und ein unerschöpfliches Nachschlagewerk dar. Das nunmehr vorliegende, lange verlangte Generalregister vervollständigt das Handbuch und macht über gemeinsame Autoren- und Sachregister den Inhalt aller 54 Bände auf einfache Weise zugänglich. Damit gehört das Generalregister in die Bibliothek jedes Physikinstitutes als Orientierungshilfe und unentbehrliches Arbeitsmittel.
The book introduces information theory and explains its application for structural modeling. Topics discussed include : analysis of multivariate qualitative data; how to confirm an information theory model; its use in exploratory research; and how it compares with other approaches such as network analysis, path analysis, chi square and analysis of variance.
This volume contains the proceedings of the international conference Model Theory of Modules, Algebras and Categories, held from July 28–August 2, 2017, at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in Erice, Italy. Papers contained in this volume cover recent developments in model theory, module theory and category theory, and their intersection.
This is the second volume of the reworked second edition of a key work on Point Process Theory. Fully revised and updated by the authors who have reworked their 1988 first edition, it brings together the basic theory of random measures and point processes in a unified setting and continues with the more theoretical topics of the first edition: limit theorems, ergodic theory, Palm theory, and evolutionary behaviour via martingales and conditional intensity. The very substantial new material in this second volume includes expanded discussions of marked point processes, convergence to equilibrium, and the structure of spatial point processes.
This book presents the fundamentals of the shock wave theory. The first part of the book, Chapters 1 through 5, covers the basic elements of the shock wave theory by analyzing the scalar conservation laws. The main focus of the analysis is on the explicit solution behavior. This first part of the book requires only a course in multi-variable calculus, and can be used as a text for an undergraduate topics course. In the second part of the book, Chapters 6 through 9, this general theory is used to study systems of hyperbolic conservation laws. This is a most significant well-posedness theory for weak solutions of quasilinear evolutionary partial differential equations. The final part of the book, Chapters 10 through 14, returns to the original subject of the shock wave theory by focusing on specific physical models. Potentially interesting questions and research directions are also raised in these chapters. The book can serve as an introductory text for advanced undergraduate students and for graduate students in mathematics, engineering, and physical sciences. Each chapter ends with suggestions for further reading and exercises for students.
The present book is a monograph including some recent results of mea sure and integration theory. It concerns three main ideas. The first idea deals with some ordering structures such as Riesz spaces and lattice or dered groups, and their relation to measure and integration theory. The second is the idea of fuzzy sets, quite new in general, and in measure theory particularly. The third area concerns some models of quantum mechanical systems. We study mainly models based on fuzzy set theory. Some recent results are systematically presented along with our suggestions for further development. The first chapter has an introductory character, where we present basic definitions and notations. Simultaneously, this chapter can be regarded as an elementary introduction to fuzzy set theory. Chapter 2 contains an original approach to the convergence of sequences of measurable functions. While the notion of a null set can be determined uniquely, the notion of a set of "small" measure has a fuzzy character. It is interesting that the notion of fuzzy set and the notion of a set of small measure (described mathematically by so-called small systems) were introduced independently at almost the same time. Although the axiomatic systems in both theories mentioned are quite different, we show that the notion of a small system can be considered from the point of view of fuzzy sets.