One of the main objectives of the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA) negotiated under the Uruguay Round is to improve the access of developing countries to foreign markets. Constraints in the domestic supply chains of many countries, along with weak marketing support and trade facilitation services, have prevented them, however, from exploiting the opportunities provided by the AoA and by other agreements to improve market access. The aim of this guide is to inform policy analysts on issues that should be considered while developing policies and measures to break the main processing and marketing constraints that prevent their countries from fully exploiting their agrifood export potential.
By 2030, 60 percent of the world's population are expected to be living in urban areas. Population growth is not solely in larger metropolitan centres - the mega cities. The numbers of small and intermediate-sized urban centres are also increasing and have an important role as links in the marketing system. This guide provides a simplified aid to understanding the physical implications of marketing linkages, based on a regional planning approach. The guide provides a simple planning methodology and framework that focuses on the issue of linking farmers to market outlets for their produce particularly identifying their marketing infrastructure needs. The users of the guide are likely to be at national, provincial or district levels and could include planners and engineers in ministries and departments of public works and transport, planning and marketing officers in ministries and departments of agriculture, local authority officers in planning, commerce and marketing departments and local authorities, communities, farmer groups and voluntary organizations, concerned to understand marketing constraints and with ensuring that rural producers have better access to markets for their products.
The agrifood transport sector in Latin America and the Caribbean is a key component of the food supply chain, making a significant contribution to gross domestic product in these countries. Well-developed, efficient food transport systems are crucial to the survival of thousands of people, and pivotal to the success or failure of key economic sectors such as agriculture and other major national and international commercial activities. This publication presents a detailed study of problems encountered, covering seventeen countries. The study focuses primarily on stumbling-blocks faced by small farmers, and suggests possible policy and programme interventions to improve the situation in the neediest areas, with repercussions for the population as a whole. (Also published in Spanish)
Author: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Org.
Category: Political Science
Over the past few decades, some countries in Asia have been more successful than others in addressing poverty and malnutrition. The key question is what policies, strategies, legislation and institutional arrangements have led to a transformed agricultural sector, effectively contributing to poverty alleviation and addressing malnutrition. The great majority of national policymakers within and outside the Asia-Pacific region are keen to understand the causes of agricultural development and transformation in successful countries in Asia. A large number of studies have been conducted and some of them link specific public policies and interventions to successful agricultural transformation. However, there seems to be lack of focus on the policy, legislative and institutional environments that have enabled or impeded agricultural transformation in Asia. National policymakers are likely to benefit significantly from adequate and convincing information on successful and relevant experiences in successful transformation. Countries are interested in what their neighbours and peers have done, and why some have achieved impressive results. The main purpose of this study is to take stock of public sector experiences in facilitating and enabling agricultural transformation in selected countries in Asia. The study focuses on key public sector interventions, in particular policies, legislation and institutional innovations, because these areas have so far not been adequately researched.
Value chain based approaches offer tremendous scope for market-based improvements in production, productivity, rural economy diversification, and household incomes, but are often covered by literature that is too conceptual or heavily focused on analysis. This has created a gap in the information available to planners, practitioners, and value chain participants. Furthermore, few references are available on how these approaches can be applied specifically to developing agriculture in Africa. 'Building Competitiveness in Africa s Agriculture: A Guide to Value Chain Concepts and Applications' describes practical implementation approaches and illustrates them with scores of real African agribusiness case studies. Using these examples, the 'Guide' presents a range of concepts, analytical tools, and methodologies centered on the value chain that can be used to design, implement, and evaluate agricultural and agribusiness development initiatives. It stresses principles of market focus, collaboration, information sharing, and innovation. The 'Guide' begins by examining core concepts and issues related to value chains. A brief literature review then focuses on five topics of particular relevance to African agricultural value chains. These topics address challenges faced by value chain participants and practitioners that resonate through the many cases described in the book. The core of the book presents methodological tools and approaches that blend important value chain concepts with the topics and with sound business principles. The tools and case studies have been selected for their usefulness in supporting market-driven, private-sector initiatives to improve value chains. The 'Guide' offers 13 implementation approaches, presented within the implementation cycle of a value chain program, followed by descriptions of actual cases. Roughly 60 percent of the examples are from Africa, while the rest come from Europe, Latin America, and Asia. The 'Guide' offers useful guidance to businesspeople, policy makers, representatives of farmer or trade organizations, and others who are engaged in agro-enterprise and agribusiness development. These readers will learn how to use value chain approaches in ways that can contribute to sound operational decisions, improved market linkage, and better results for enterprise and industry development.
This book focuses on three essential elements of agricultural supply chains: Planting and Growing, Processing and Selling, and Government Interventions. For decades, most agricultural economists applied macro-economic theory in decisions pertaining to the optimization of food production and distribution. However, few researchers used micro-economic theory to examine how individual farmers respond to market information, incentive pricing mechanisms and different market structures in the trade of agricultural goods. Examining challenges in agricultural supply chain operations through the lens of micro-economic theory is imperative because it can enable policymakers and social enterprises to develop and design market information provision policy, incentive contracts and market structures for improving farmer and consumer welfare. In each chapter, contributing authors motivate their research questions by providing the context and articulating the importance of their questions. They present their analysis to examine the respective research questions and explain their results. At the end of each chapter, they provide a short list of future research questions.
A brief introduction to the role of insurance as a risk management mechanism in livestock and aquaculture enterprises, exploring some of the complexities involved in the financial mechanism for risk sharing.
This volume examines the range of Non-Trade Concerns (NTCs) that may conflict with international economic rules and proposes ways to protect them within international law and international economic law. Globalization without local concerns can endanger relevant issues such as good governance, human rights, right to water, right to food, social, economic, cultural and environmental rights, labor rights, access to knowledge, public health, social welfare, consumer interests and animal welfare, climate change, energy, environmental protection and sustainable development, product safety, food safety and security. Focusing on China, the book shows the current trends of Chinese law and policy towards international standards. The authors argue that China can play a leading role in this context: not only has China adopted several reforms and new regulations to address NTCs; but it has started to play a very relevant role in international negotiations on NTCs such as climate change, energy, and culture, among others. While China is still considered a developing country, in particular from the NTCs’ point of view, it promises to be a key actor in international law in general and, more specifically, in international economic law in this respect. This volume assesses, taking into consideration its special context, China’s behavior internally and externally to understand its role and influence in shaping NTCs in the context of international economic law.
This book examines different innovations in worldwide agricultural-systems including the applications of artificial intelligence (AI), internet of things (IoT) and features of machine learning (ML) for the benefits of the farm-community. Specifically, it examines the use of agricultural equipment and IoT to reduce physical stress; innovative equipment that measure and reduce mental work load; and innovative techniques to help with employee safety. Featuring case studies and future implications, this book is an excellent guide for academics and researchers in the agri-sector.
Publisher: Food & Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO)
Category: Agricultural processing
Small scale food processing can create diversified incomes and employement for farmers in rural villages. Processing brings many differenet benefits to communities: it allows foods to be preserved and stored as a reserve against times of shortage, it helps to avoid the effects of lowered prices when seasonal gluts occur at harvest time, it creates special foods for cultural idenity and it enables farmers to add value to crops and animal products that diversify and increase sources of income.