The oceans cover 70% of the Earth’s surface, and are critical components of Earth’s climate system. This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference. Represents a one-stop. organic information resource on the breadth of ocean science research Reflects the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and climate change Provides scientifically reliable information at a foundational level, making this work a resource for students as well as active researches
Thoroughly updated to include the most recent and fascinating discoveries in oceanography, the Fifth Edition takes great strides to be the most up-to-date, comprehensive, and student-friendly resource available today. Its content continues to span the four major divisions of ocean science: geology, chemistry, physics and biology, while maintaining the conversational voice for which it is acclaimed. The Fifth Edition boasts many exciting updates, including a new chapter on global climate change that educates students on global warming in the 21st century and its likely impact on ocean systems. With new end-of-chapter questions, new color photographs and illustrations, and an expanded assortment of Selected Readings, Invitation to Oceanography is a must-have in any marine science classroom! Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.
to the Third Edition Following the success of the first two editions of this book in which the core subject matter has been retained, we have taken the opportunity to add substantial new material, including an additional chapter on that most important activity of the chemical industry, research and development. Topical items such as quality, safety and environmental issues also receive enhanced coverage. The team of authors for this edition comprises both those revising and updating their chapters and some new ones. The latter's different approach to the subject matter is reflected in the new titles: Organisational Structures - A Story of Evolution (chapter 5) and Environmental Impact of the Chemical Industry (chapter 9). The chapter on Energy retains its original title but different approach of the new authors is evident. We have updated statistics and tables wherever possible and expanded the index. We hope readers find the brief 'pen pictures' of authors to be interesting. It is worth stressing again that this book is designed to be used with its companion volume - The Chemical Industry, 2nd Edition, ed. Alan Heaton (referred to as Volume 2) - for a complete introduction to the chemical industry. Thanks are due to all contributors and to my wife Joy for typing my contributions.
This introductory text explains the fundamentals of the chemistry of the natural environment and the effects of mankind's activities on the earth's chemical systems. Retains an emphasis on describing how natural geochemical processes operate over a variety of scales in time and space, and how the effects of human perturbation can be measured. Topics range from familiar global issues such as atmospheric pollution and its effect on global warming and ozone destruction, to microbiological processes that cause pollution of drinking water deltas. Contains sections and information boxes that explain the basic chemistry underpinning the subject covered. Each chapter contains a list of further reading on the subject area. Updated case studies. No prior chemistry knowledge required. Suitable for introductory level courses.
This textbook deals with the most important items in Marine Geology, including some pioneer work. The list of topics has grown greatly in the last few decades beyond the items identified by Eugen Seibold as central and now includes prominently such things as methane and climate change; that is, the carbon cycle and the Earth system as a whole. Relevant geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological methods are shortly described. They should allow the reader to comment on new results about plate tectonics, marine sedimentation from the coasts to the deep sea, climatological aspects, paleoceanology and the use of the sea floor. The text tries to transmit to the reader excitement of marine geological research both aboard and in modern laboratories. Basic mineralogical, geochemical, biological and other relevant data and a detailed list of books and symposia are given in an Appendix. This Introduction builds on the third edition of “The Sea Floor” by E. Seibold and W.H. Berger. While much of the original text was written by Seibold, a considerable portion of the material presented in this edition is new, taking into account the recent great shift in marine geological research, some of it with great relevance to human concerns arising in a rapidly changing world.
'Deep-Sea Sediments' focuses on the sedimentary processes operating within the various modern and ancient deep-sea environments. The chapters track the way of sedimentary particles from continental erosion or production in the marine realm, to transport into the deep sea, to final deposition on the sea floor.
Chemical Oceanography, Third Edition, is a survey of essential concepts that contains a wealth of new data and maps, resulting in a more in-depth examination of oceanic biogeochemical processes. The most up-to-date compilation of essential concepts and data available on the subject, this book responds to the need for a thorough, yet straightforward approach to the subject for students, researchers, and other professionals in marine science, geochemistry, and environmental chemistry. The third edition of Chemical Oceanography incorporates significant findings on the properties of oceans from recent, large-scale oceanographic programs and valuable new data derived from additional experiments. It also discusses the interactions of metals with inorganic and natural organic ligands and the effect of speciation of metals on bioavailability and toxicity. The section on carbonate systems now examines the input of fossil fuel CO2 into the ocean and its effect on the pH of the world oceans. Frank J. Millero, a world-renowned marine researcher and professor of undergraduate and graduate courses at the University of Miami for nearly 40 years, presents a time-tested and user-friendly resource specifically designed for both classroom use and self-study.
Sea ice is an important driver of climate patterns and polar marine ecosystem dynamics. In particular, primary production by microalgae in sea ice has been postulated as a sink for anthropogenic CO2, and as a critical resource in the life cycle of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba, a keystone species. Study of the sea ice ecosystem is difficult at regional and global scales, however, because of the expense and logistical difficulties in accessing such a remote and hostile environment. Consequently, models remain valuable tools for investigations of the spatial and temporal dynamics of sea ice and associated ecology and biogeochemistry. Recent advances in model representations of sea ice have called into question the accuracy of previous studies, and allow the creation of new tools to perform mechanistic simulations of sea ice physics and biogeochemistry. To address spatial and temporal variability in Antarctic sea ice algal production, and to establish the bounds and sensitivities of the sea ice ecosystem, a new, coupled sea ice ecosystem model was developed. In the vertical dimension, the model resolves incorporated saline brine, macronutrients concentrations, spectral shortwave radiation, and the sea ice algae community at high resolution. A novel method for thermodynamics, desalination, and fluid transfer in slushy, high-brine fraction sea ice was developed to simulate regions of high algal productivity. The processes of desalination, fluid transfer, snow-ice creation, and superimposed ice formation allowed the evolution of realistic vertical profiles of sea ice salinity and algal growth. The model replicated time series observations of ice temperature, salinity, algal biomass, and estimated fluid flux from the Ice Station Weddell experiment. In the horizontal dimension, sub-grid scale parameterizations of snow and ice thickness allow more realistic simulation of the ice thickness distribution, and consequently, sea ice algal habitat. The model is forced from above by atmospheric reanalysis climatologies, and from below by climatological ocean heat flux and deep-water ocean characteristics. Areal sea ice concentration and motion are specified according to SSM/I passive microwave satellite estimates of these parameters. Sensitivity testing of different snow and ice parameterizations showed that without a sub-grid scale ice thickness distribution, mean ice and snow thickness is lower and bottom sea ice algal production is elevated. Atmospheric forcing from different reanalysis data sets cause mean and regional shifts in sea ice production and associated ecology, even when sea ice extent and motion is controlled. Snow cover represents a first-order control over ice algal production by limiting the light available to bottom ice algal communities, and changes to the regional, rather than mean, snow thickness due to the use of different ice and snow representations are responsible for large differences in the magnitude and distribution of sea ice algal production. Improved convective nutrient exchange in high-brine fraction (slush) sea ice is responsible for up to 18% of total sea ice algal production. A continuous 10-year model run using climatological years 1996-2005 produced a time series of sea ice algal primary production that varied between 15.5 and 18.0 Tg C yr-1. This study represents the first interannual estimate of Antarctic sea ice algal production that dynamically considers the light, temperature, salinity, and nutrient conditions that control algal growth. On average, 64% of algal production occurred in the bottom 0.2 m of the ice pack. Production was spatially heterogeneous, with little consistency between years when examined at regional scales; however, at basin or hemispheric scales, annual production was fairly consistent in magnitude. At a mean of 0.9 g C m-2 yr-1, the magnitude of carbon uptake by sea ice algae will not significantly affect the Southern Ocean carbon cycle. Light availability was the dominant
The Second Edition of The Drift of Sea Ice presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. This second edition of a much lauded work, unique on this topic in the English language, has been revised, updated and expanded with much new information and outlines recent results, in particular in relation to the climate problem, mathematical modelling and ice engineering applications. The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science.
MARGO - Multiproxy Approach for the Reconstruction of the Glacial Ocean surface summarizes the results of the MARGO international working group, with the aim to develop an updated and harmonised reconstruction of sea surface temperatures and sea-ice extent of the Last Glacial Maximum oceans. The MARGO approach differs from previous efforts by developing and consistently applying measures of various aspects of reconstruction reliability, and by combining faunal and geochemical proxies. In 14 papers, the volume provides a comprehensive review of earlier work and a series of new, proxy-specific reconstructions based on census counts of planktonic foraminifera, diatoms, radiolaria and dinoflagellate cysts as well as on Mg/Ca measurements in planktonic foraminifera. The approach of harmonising the calibration and application of different proxies is described in detail, various paleothermometry techniques and their results are compared and the challenge of treating sparsely sampled data as the basis for ocean circulation models is addressed. The use of stable oxygen isotope composition of foraminiferal shells as a proxy for past sea water composition is comprehensively reassessed, and a new approach to the transfer function paleothermometer is presented. This volume represents a landmark contribution to the understanding of ice-age oceanography as well as the proxies used to reconstruct past ocean states. The results will form the basis for forcing and validation of ocean circulation models. New regional reconstructions of Last Glacial Maximum ocean temperatures and sea ice cover Compilation of new calibration and fossil datasets as well as documentation of techniques and approaches to paleoenvironmental reconstructions Comparison of techniques, proxies and modelling approaches
Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press
Sheds new light on the microbial ecology and physiology of the Earth’s polar regions. • Examines the microbial investigations during the International Polar Year of 2008 focusing on the Arctic and Antarctic, along with earlier investigations on critical environmental issues such as climate change, ozone depletion, and elemental cycling. • Offers a survey of what is known and unknown about the microbial inhabitants of polar environments, addresses the adaptations and physiology of cold-adapted microorganisms, and explores the ecological role that polar microbial communities play in biogeochemical cycling. • Presents the challenges that polar and subpolar microorganisms face and describes the lowest temperatures in which microbial life can exist—and the prospects for life on other planets. Recommended for a general microbiology audience as well as for scientists and students in all areas of biology and geomicrobiology.