Released on 2013-09-06Categories Science

Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping to Reveal Global and Cosmic Processes

Constant-Scale Natural Boundary Mapping to Reveal Global and Cosmic Processes

Author: Pamela Elizabeth Clark

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461477624

Category: Science

Page: 116

View: 371

Whereas conventional maps can be expressed as outward-expanding formulae with well-defined central features and relatively poorly defined edges, Constant Scale Natural Boundary (CSNB) maps have well-defined boundaries that result from natural processes and thus allow spatial and dynamic relationships to be observed in a new way useful to understanding these processes. CSNB mapping presents a new approach to visualization that produces maps markedly different from those produced by conventional cartographic methods. In this approach, any body can be represented by a 3D coordinate system. For a regular body, with its surface relatively smooth on the scale of its size, locations of features can be represented by definite geographic grid (latitude and longitude) and elevation, or deviation from the triaxial ellipsoid defined surface. A continuous surface on this body can be segmented, its distinctive regional terranes enclosed, and their inter-relationships defined, by using selected morphologically identifiable relief features (e.g., continental divides, plate boundaries, river or current systems). In this way, regions of distinction on a large, essentially spherical body can be mapped as two-dimensional ‘facets’ with their boundaries representing regional to global-scale asymmetries (e.g., continental crust, continental and oceanic crust on the Earth, farside original thicker crust and nearside thinner impact punctuated crust on the Moon). In an analogous manner, an irregular object such as an asteroid, with a surface that is rough on the scale of its size, would be logically segmented along edges of its impact-generated faces. Bounded faces are imagined with hinges at occasional points along boundaries, resulting in a foldable ‘shape model.’ Thus, bounded faces grow organically out of the most compelling natural features. Obvious boundaries control the map’s extremities, and peripheral regions are not dismembered or grossly distorted as in conventional map projections. 2D maps and 3D models grow out of an object’s most obvious face or terrane ‘edges,’ instead of arbitrarily by imposing a regular grid system or using regularly shaped facets to represent an irregular surface.
Released on 2000-09-01Categories History

Maps and Politics

Maps and Politics

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Reaktion Books

ISBN: 9781861898371

Category: History

Page: 188

View: 703

?We all rely on the apparent accuracy and objectivity of maps, but often do not see the very process of mapping as political. Are the power and purpose of maps inherently political? Maps and Politics addresses this important question and seeks to emphasize that the apparent ‘objectivity’ of the map-making and map-using process cannot be divorced from aspects of the politics of representation. Maps have played, and continue to play, a major role in both international and domestic politics. They show how visual geographical representations can be made to reflect and advance political agendas in powerful ways. The major developments in this field over the last century are responses both to cartographic progression and to a greater emphasis on graphic imagery in societies affected by politicization, democratization, and consumer and cultural shifts. Jeremy Black asks whether bias-free cartography is possible and demonstrates that maps are not straightforward visual texts, but contain political and politicizing subtexts that need to be read with care.
Released on 2009-11-20Categories History

Naval Power

Naval Power

Author: Jeremy Black

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781137059901

Category: History

Page: 240

View: 379

Man lives on land, but the seas of the world are crucial to his lot. Focusing on navies as instruments of power and analysing what they indicate about the nature of state systems and cultures all over the world, Black provides an overview of the most significant debates within the field. Organised into key historical periods and accessibly framed, this wide-ranging account emphasises the links between past and present throughout the history of naval power.
Released on 2000-10-19Categories Law

Continental Shelf Limits

Continental Shelf Limits

Author: Peter J. Cook

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0198027869

Category: Law

Page: 384

View: 352

Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea lays down the rules and regulations governing claims to a continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles for the 130 coastal States and entities that have ratified or acceded to it. This book is designed to help those coastal States implement the provisions of Article 76, covering the technical issues involved and explaining the interface between the legal concepts contained within the article. It covers all aspects that will have to be considered by a coastal State if it wishes to make a claim under the Convention, including the characteristics of continental margins, distance determination, bathymetric data collection. geological and geophysical techniques, and boundary conditions.
Released on 2015-04-17Categories Science

Treatise on Geophysics

Treatise on Geophysics

Author:

Publisher: Elsevier

ISBN: 9780444538031

Category: Science

Page: 5604

View: 563

Treatise on Geophysics, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and in-depth study of the physics of the Earth beyond what any geophysics text has provided previously. Thoroughly revised and updated, it provides fundamental and state-of-the-art discussion of all aspects of geophysics. A highlight of the second edition is a new volume on Near Surface Geophysics that discusses the role of geophysics in the exploitation and conservation of natural resources and the assessment of degradation of natural systems by pollution. Additional features include new material in the Planets and Moon, Mantle Dynamics, Core Dynamics, Crustal and Lithosphere Dynamics, Evolution of the Earth, and Geodesy volumes. New material is also presented on the uses of Earth gravity measurements. This title is essential for professionals, researchers, professors, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of Geophysics and Earth system science. Comprehensive and detailed coverage of all aspects of geophysics Fundamental and state-of-the-art discussions of all research topics Integration of topics into a coherent whole