Over the past 50 years, cereals such as maize, rice, wheat, sorghum, and barley have emerged as rapidly evolving crops because of new technologies and advances in agronomy, breeding, biotechnology, genetics, and so on. Population growth and climate change have led to new challenges, among which are feeding the growing global population and mitigating adverse effects on the environment. One way to deal with these issues is through sustainable cereal production. This book discusses ways to achieve sustainable production of cereals via agronomy, breeding, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. Chapters review research, examine challenges, and present prospects in the field. This volume is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and scientists interested in and working in the area of sustainable crop production.
While cereals remain the world's largest food yield - with more than 2.3 billion metric tons produced annually - consumer demands are on the rise for healthier cereal products with greater nutrition. Cereal Grains: Properties, Processing, and Nutritional Attributes provides a complete exploration of the scientific principles related to domesticatio
Cereal grains are essential to our dietary needs, as well as for animal feeding and for industrial processing. Consumer needs can only be met by managing quality at all stages of the grain chain. Quality evaluation is also needed at each step for effective management. Cereal grains: assessing and managing quality provides a convenient and comprehensive overview of academic research and industry best practice in these areas. After an initial chapter introducing the themes of the book, further chapters in Part one review cereal grain morphology and composition and the diversity of uses of cereal grains. Chapters in Part two convey the characteristics and quality requirements of particular cereals, including wheat, rye, corn and rice. The use of analytical methods at different stages of the value-addition chain is the subject of Part three. The final section in the book reviews factors affecting grain quality such as breeding, storage and grain processing, and also possible future developments. With its expert team of editors and authors, Cereal grains: assessing and managing quality is a valuable reference for all those involved in the production and processing of cereal grains worldwide. Reviews cereal grain morphology and composition and the diversity of the different uses of cereal grains Examines the use of analytical methods at different stages of the value-addition chain Reviews the factors affecting grain quality such as breeding, storage and grain processing, as well as possible future developments
Native carbohydrate fractions of major dietary components in pig nutrition, such as dietary fiber, resistant starch and oligosaccharides in whole cereal grains or grain legumes appear to be appropriate to manipulate the porcine gut microbiota. Therefore, the objective of this thesis was to evaluate effects of differences in carbohydrate composition of cereal grains, grain legumes and feed supplements on the intestinal microbiota in pigs. Based on a comprehensive literature research, an overview on the current research on the effect of whole grain cereals and grain legumes as well as their by-products on the pigs’ intestinal microbiota in relation to their carbohydrate composition was given. An in vivo experiment was carried out to determine the effects of 8 recently introduced genotypes of barley or wheat on ileal and fecal microbiota of grower pigs by means of quantitative real-time PCR. In addition, in a second experiment the effect of ultra-fine ground fibers from wheat, lupins and peas in comparison to inulin and basal substrates on the microbiota composition and formation of microbial metabolites was determined in vitro using the modified Hohenheim Gas Test. In agreement with previous studies, the potential to modulate the pigs’ intestinal microbiota with cereal grains and feed supplements based on cereal grain or grain legume fibers was shown. However, it was not possible to assign the observed effects on the bacterial groups to the dietary carbohydrates known to influence the intestinal microbiota, such as arabinoxylan or β-glucan.
Finite Element Analysis and Computational Fluid Dynamics have been introduced in modelling and simulation of drying and storage systems, these techniques are expected to dominate the future research and development of drying and storages, and should reduce losses and improve the quality of agricultural products, enhancing food security globally. Drying and Storage of Cereal Grains, Second Edition, covers the wide spectrum of drying and storage methods applied to economically important cereal produce, providingnumerical examples for better understanding the complexity in drying and storage systems through modelling and simulation, aiding design and management of drying and storage systems. Chapters 1 to 8 look at air and grain moisture equilibria, psychrometry, physical and thermal properties of cereal grains, principles of air flow, and provide detailed analyses of grain drying.Chapters 9 to 13 focus on temperature and moisture in grain storages, and provide comprehensive treatment of modern grain storage systems. The book also includes a number of unsolved problems at the end of each chapter for further practice. This revised second edition includes new sections on - heat of sorption finite element modeling of single kernel CFD modeling of fluidized bed drying exergy analysis and neural network modeling numerical solution of two dimensional temperature and moisture changes in stored grain This book will provide students in agricultural engineering and food engineering with a wide spectrum of drying and storage studies previously unavailable in a single monograph. It will also serve as an excellent reference for practicing agricultural engineers, food engineers and food technologists.
Globally, cereal grains are a staple part of the diet providing primarily carbohydrates and other phytochemical components. Detailed coverage of the composition and functionality of the bulk carbohydrate components, specifically starch, beta-glucans, and arabinoxylans, and the trace phytochemical components, i.e. phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, anthocyanins, deoxyanthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins in cereal grains and grain products is provided. Considerable attention is paid to the interactions between carbohydrate and non-carbohydrate components in grains including starch–protein and starch–lipid interactions and their effects on starch digestibility. The phenolic constituents bound to grain dietary fiber also receive detailed consideration and the final chapter presents a review that discusses whole grain–gut microbiota interactions identifying new areas of research that may contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms linked to human health. This book provides researchers, clinicians and students with a comprehensive compendium on aspects of whole grain components and brings the literature up to date.
Cereal uses range from human food and beverages to animal feeds and industrial products. It is human food and beverages which are the predominant uses covered in this book, since the nutritional quality of cereals for animal feed is described in other publications on animal nutrition, and industrial products are a relatively minor use of cereals. Cereals are the main components of human diets and are crucial to human survival. Three species, wheat, rice and maize, account for the bulk of human food. Barley is the major raw material for beer production and ranks fourth in world production. Other species such as sorghum are regionally important. This book covers all the major cereal species: wheat, rice, maize, barley, sorghum, millet, oats, rye and triticale. Specific chapters have been devoted to a description of the major end-uses of each of the species and to definition of the qualities required for each of their end uses. The functional and nutritional quality of cereals determines their suitability for specific purposes and may limit the quality of the end product, influencing greatly the commercial value of grain. An under standing of the factors that determine grain quality is thus important in the maintenance of efficient and sustainable agricultural and food production. The biochemical constituents of the grain that determine quality have been described in chapters on proteins, carbohydrates and other components. An understanding of the relationships between grain composition and quality is important in selecting grain for specific uses.
The Encyclopedia of Food Grains is an in-depth and authoritative reference covering all areas of grain science. Coverage includes everything from the genetics of grains to the commercial, economic and social aspects of this important food source. Also covered are the biology and chemistry of grains, the applied aspects of grain production and the processing of grains into various food and beverage products. With the paramount role of cereals as a global food source, this Encyclopedia is sure to become the standard reference work in the field of science. Also available online via ScienceDirect – featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit www.info.sciencedirect.com. Written from an international perspective the Encyclopedia concentrates on the food uses of grains, but details are also provided about the wider roles of grains Well organized and accessible, it is the ideal resource for students, researchers and professionals seeking an authoritative overview on any particular aspect of grain science This second edition has four print volumes which provides over 200 articles on food grains Includes extensive cross-referencing and "Further Reading" lists at the end of each article for deeper exploration into the topic This edition also includes useful items for students and teachers alike, with Topic Highlights, Learning objectives, Exercises for Revision and exercises to explore the topic further
In recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in grain-based fuel ethanol production in North America and around the world. Whether such production will result in a net energy gain or whether this is sustainable in the long term is under debate, but undoubtedly millions of tons of non-fermented residues are now produced annually for global trade in the form of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Consequently, in a short period of time a tremendous amount of research has been conducted to determine the suitability of ethanol coproducts for various end uses. Distillers Grains: Production, Properties and Utilization is the first book of its kind to provide in-depth, and up-to-date coverage of Historical and current status of the fuel ethanol industry in the U.S. Processing methods, scientific principles, and innovations for making fuel ethanol using grains as feedstock Physical and chemical properties of DDGS, assay methodologies for compositional analyses, and mycotoxin occurrence in DDGS Changes during processing (from grains to DDGS) and analysis of factors causing variations in compositional, nutritional, and physical values Various traditional, new, and emerging uses for DDGS (including feed for cattle, swine, poultry, fish, and other animals, feedstocks for cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and other bioenergy production, and substrates for food and industrial uses) Appealing to all who have an interest in fuel ethanol production, distillers grains, and their uses, this comprehensive reference sharpens the readers’ understanding of distillers grains and will promote better utilization of ethanol coproducts. Animal and food scientists, feed and food technologists, ethanol plant managers and technicians, nutritionists, academic and governmental professionals, and college students will find the book most useful.
This work takes a multidisciplinary approach to grain storage research, applying knowledge from the fields of biology, cereal chemistry, economics, engineering, mathematical modelling and toxicology to the study of the complex interactions among physical and biological variables in stored-grain bulks that cause the deterioration of stored grain. Details the prevention and control of pests and contaminants.