'Deep-Sea Sediments' focuses on the sedimentary processes operating within the various modern and ancient deep-sea environments. The chapters track the way of sedimentary particles from continental erosion or production in the marine realm, to transport into the deep sea, to final deposition on the sea floor.
As part of its continuing program to stimulate superior basic research in the marine environment, the Office of Naval Research, Ocean Science and Technology Division, sponsored a series of closed seminar-workshops in 1972-1973. Each seminar focused upon one re search area of marine geology which is relatively new and in need of a critical evaluation and accelerated support. The subjects areas chosen for the seminars were: 1. natural gases in marine sediments and their mode of distribution, 2. nephelometry and the optical properties of ocean waters, 3. physical and engineering properties of deep-sea sediments, and 4. physics of sound in marine sediments. The objectives of each seminar-workshop were to bring into sharper focus the state-of-the-science within each subject area, to effect some degree of coordination among the investigators working within each of these areas and to provide the Ocean Science and Technology Division guidance for national program support. This volume.contains most of the papers presented at the semi nar on the physical and engineering properties of deep-sea sediments. The seminar was held at Airlie House, Airlie, Virginia on April 24- 27, 1973 and was organized and chaired by A. Inderbitzen. The at tendees were invited from among the leading investigators in this field from both the engineering and scientific disciplines. Each attendee was requested to prepare a paper within his area of spe ciality.
For years scientists viewed the deep sea as calm, quiet, and undisturbed, with marine species existing in an ecologically stable and uniform environment. Recent discoveries have completely transformed that understanding and the deep sea is recognized as a complicated and dynamic environment with a rich diversity of marine species. Carefully designed to provide practical information in an easily accessible format, Methods for the Study of Deep-Sea Sediments, Their Functioning, and Biodiversity covers how to investigate the biological components through analysis of their biodiversity. It also provides the protocols and methodological details needed to investigate some aspects of the functional biodiversity of variables commonly utilized to describe and understand the drivers of deep-sea ecosystem functioning. This volume contains detailed protocols for analyzing all benthic components from benthic viruses, prokaryotes, protozoa, foraminifera, to meio-, macro-, and megafauna. It includes step-by-step procedures, with additional notes on the crucial steps or possible difficulties arising from the analysis. Each chapter provides a brief introduction, a description of the sampling procedures and/or the sample treatment, and then the laboratory protocols, providing information on instrument setting and/or the solutions utilized. Each chapter also contains a visual scheme of the protocol for use during laboratory activities and for tracking each laboratory step. Linking information on biodiversity with the functioning of the marine ecosystems, the book covers all living components of the benthos. It provides practical information for anyone studying deep-sea habitats, their characteristics, functioning, and biodiversity.
This Volume belongs to a series on Oceanography. It is designed so that it can be read on its own, or used as a supplement in oceanogrphy courses. After a brief introduction to sea-floor sediments, the book shows how the activities of marine organisms cycle nutrients and other dissolved constituents within the oceans, and influence the rates at which both solid and dissolved material is removed to sediments. It goes on to review the carbonate system and shows how sediments that come from continental areas may be transported to the deep sea, explores what sea-floor sediments have taught us about the history of the oceans, and describes the biological and chemical processes that continue long after sediments have been deposited on the deep sea-floor. * Covers the basics on the occurrence, distribution, and cycling of chemical elements in the ocean * Features full-color photographs and beautiful illustrations throughout * Reader-friendly layout, writing, and graphics * Pedagogy includes chapter summaries, chapter questions with answers and comments at the end of the book; highlighted key terms; and boxed topics and explanations * Can be used alone, as a supplement, or in combination with other Open University titles in oceanography
After a brief introduction to the distribution of deep-sea sediments, we show how the activities of marine organisms cycle nutrients and other dissolved constituents within the oceans, and influence the rates at which both solid and dissolved material is removed to sediments. Chapter 3 reviews the carbonate system and ends with a brief excursion into palaeoceanography. We conclude by describing the biological and chemical processes that continue long after sediments have been deposited on the deep-sea floor.