Deficit thinking is a pseudoscience founded on racial and class bias. It "blames the victim" for school failure instead of examining how schools are structured to prevent poor students and students of color from learning. Dismantling Contemporary Deficit Thinking provides comprehensive critiques and anti-deficit thinking alternatives to this oppressive theory by framing the linkages between prevailing theoretical perspectives and contemporary practices within the complex historical development of deficit thinking. Dismantling Contemporary Deficit Thinking examines the ongoing social construction of deficit thinking in three aspects of current discourse – the genetic pathology model, the culture of poverty model, and the "at-risk" model in which poor students, students of color, and their families are pathologized and marginalized. Richard R. Valencia challenges these three contemporary components of the deficit thinking theory by providing incisive critiques and discussing competing explanations for the pervasive school failure of many students in the nation’s public schools. Valencia also discusses a number of proactive, anti-deficit thinking suggestions from the fields of teacher education, educational leadership, and educational ethnography that are intended to provide a more equitable and democratic schooling for all students.
International Deficit Thinking: Educational Thought and Practice explores the incontrovertible reality of the persistent and pervasive academic achievement gap in many countries between marginalized students (primarily of color) and their economically advantaged White counterparts. For example, International Deficit Thinking discusses the cases of low-socioeconomic Black and Mexican American students in the United States, Indigenous Māori students in New Zealand, and immigrant Moroccan and Turkish pupils in Belgium. The predominant theoretical perspective that has been advanced to explain the school failure of marginalized students is the deficit thinking paradigm—a parsimonious, endogenous, and pseudoscientific model that blames such students as the makers of their own school failure. Deficit thinking asserts that the low academic achievement of many marginalized students is due to their limited intellectual ability, poor academic achievement motivation, and being raised in dysfunctional families and cultures. Drawing from, in part, critical race theory, systemic inequality analysis, and colonialism/postcolonialism, award-winning author and scholar Richard R.Valencia examines deficit thinking in education in 16 countries (e.g., Canada; Peru, Australia; England; India; South Africa). He seeks to (a) document and debunk deficit thinking as an interpretation for school failure of marginalized students; (b) offer scientifically defensible counternarratives for race-, class-, language-, and gender-based differences in academic achievement; (c) provide suggestions for workable and sustainable school reform for marginalized students.
Exceptional education, also known as special education, is often grounded within exclusive and deficit mindsets and practices. Research has shown perpetual challenges with disproportionate identification of culturally and linguistically diverse students, especially Black and Indigenous students. Research has also shown perpetual use of inappropriate placement in more restrictive learning environments for marginalized students, often starting in Pre-K. Exceptional education practitioners often engage in practices that place disability before ability in instruction, behavior management, identification and use of related services, and educational setting placement decisions. These practices, among others, have resulted in a crippled system that situates students with exceptionalities in perceptions of deviance, ineptitude, and perpetuate systemic oppression. The Handbook of Research on Challenging Deficit Thinking for Exceptional Education Improvement unites current theory and practices to communicate the next steps to end the current harmful practices and experiences of exceptional students through critical analysis of current practices, mindsets, and policies. With the information this book provides, practitioners have the power to implement direct and explicit actions across levels to end the harm and liberate our most vulnerable populations. Covering topics such as accelerated learning, educator preparation programs, and intersectional perspectives, this book is a dynamic resource for teachers in exceptional education, general teachers, social workers, psychologists, educational leaders, organizational leaders, the criminal justice system, law enforcement agencies, government agencies, policymakers, curriculum designers, testing companies, current educational practitioners, administrators, post-grad students, professors, researchers, and academicians.
This volume examines the school-to-prison pipeline, a concept that has received growing attention over the past 10–15 years in the United States. The “pipeline” refers to a number of interrelated concepts and activities that most often include the criminalization of students and student behavior, the police-like state found in many schools throughout the country, and the introduction of youth into the criminal justice system at an early age. The school-to-prison pipeline negatively and disproportionally affects communities of color throughout the United States, particularly in urban areas. Given the demographic composition of public schools in the United States, the nature of student performance in schools over the past 50 years, the manifestation of school-to-prison pipeline approaches pervasive throughout the country and the world, and the growing incarceration rates for youth, this volume explores this issue from the sociological, criminological, and educational perspectives. Understanding, Dismantling, and Disrupting the Prison-to-School Pipeline has contributions from scholars and practitioners who work in the fields of sociology, counseling, criminal justice, and who are working to dismantle the pipeline. While the academic conversation has consistently called the pipeline ‘school-to-prison,’ including the framing of many chapters in this book, the economic and market forces driving the prison-industrial complex urge us to consider reframing the pipeline as one working from ‘prison-to-school.’ This volume points toward the tensions between efforts to articulate values of democratic education and schooling against practices that criminalize youth and engage students in reductionist and legalistic manners.
The third edition of the best selling collection, Chicano School Failure and Success presents a complete and comprehensive review of the multiple and complex issues affecting Chicano students today. Richly informative and accessibly written, this edition includes completely revised and updated chapters that incorporate recent scholarship and research on the current realities of the Chicano school experience. It features four entirely new chapters on important topics such as la Chicana, two way dual language education, higher education, and gifted Chicano students. Contributors to this edition include experts in fields ranging from higher education, bilingual education, special education, gifted education, educational psychology, and anthropology. In order to capture the broad nature of Chicano school failure and success, contributors provide an in-depth look at topics as diverse as Chicano student dropout rates, the relationship between Chicano families and schools, and the impact of standards-based school reform and deficit thinking on Chicano student achievement. Committed to understanding the plight and improvement of schooling for Chicanos, this timely new edition addresses all the latest issues in Chicano education and will be a valued resource for students, educators, researchers, policy makers, and community activists alike.
Ensuring classrooms are inclusive to all students, particularly those with disabilities such as autism spectrum disorder, is crucial in today’s educational landscape. It is vital that educators are prepared and knowledgeable on the current best practices and policies in order to provide these students with the most thorough education possible. Rethinking Perception and Centering the Voices of Unique Individuals: Reframing Autism Inclusion in Praxis introduces a new model of reframing autism spectrum disorder inclusion for professors of preliminary teacher candidates and provides meaningful understanding and support for professors who prepare preliminary teacher candidates. Covering key topics such as equity, mental disorders, inclusive education, and educational reform, this reference work is ideal for administrators, stakeholders, policymakers, teacher educators, counselors, researchers, academicians, scholars, practitioners, instructors, and students.
Drawing on the work of Eleanor Duckworth, this volume examines Critical Exploration in the Classroom (CEC)—a learning-teaching research practice that positions teachers as researchers of their students’ sense-making and learners as theorizers and investigators. By integrating CEC into their teacher education classrooms, chapter authors have found that they can reliably unsettle their teacher candidates’ understandings about the nature of teaching and learning and recenter their attention on the intellectual originality and creativity of all young people. In this way, CEC provides valuable tools in the work of creating more equitable and democratic classrooms. Such tools are needed in a broader environment that overvalues instrumental approaches to achieving specified learning outcomes. Readers will find practices that empower and sustain the deep intellectual engagement of all learners. Integrating classroom narratives and other forms of documentation, this resource illustrates the kinds of profound changes in understanding that have occurred for teacher candidates as a result of working with CEC. Book Features: Opens both the teacher educator and teacher candidates to new ways of teaching, learning, and being in classrooms.Demonstrates how the practice works to counter deficit thinking by revealing students’ brilliance.Uses narratives and other forms of documentation to characterize the potential of CEC within a diverse array of teacher education classrooms.Portrays the many ways in which CEC has been integrated into different disciplinary and institutional settings, illustrating the common intellectual and interpersonal dynamics at work.Chapter authors all studied Critical Exploration in the Classroom (CEC) with its originator, Eleanor Duckworth. Contributors: Elizabeth Cavicchi, Eleanor Duckworth, Fiona Hughes-McDonnell, Keri Gelenian, Houman Harouni, Yeh Hsueh, Susan Rauchwerk, Lisa Schneier, William Shorr, Bonnie Hao-Kuo Tai
This book exposes a disturbing misuse of the scientific method to advance policies and agendas that are in fact detrimental to both science and education. The author, a physics professor, examines two related trends in education – the practice of “data-driven” reform and the disparaging of the traditional liberal arts in favor of programs with a heavy emphasis on science and technology. Many of the reforms being foisted on educators have more in common with pseudo-science than real science. The reduction of education to a commodity, and the shilling of science as a means to enhance corporate profits, lead to an impoverished and stunted understanding of science in particular, and of education in general. How is it possible for: • schools with all students learning at grade-level to be rated as failing?• teachers to be rated as ineffective after all their students meet their learning outcomes?• rising grade-school math standards to result in more college students needing remedial math?• politicians to disparage scientists and their results but argue that more students should study science? These bizarre outcomes have happened and are the result of an education system that misuses and misrepresents math and science in the classroom and in crafting education policies. This book exposes the flawed and fallacious thinking that is damaging education at all levels throughout the United States, and makes a compelling case for rethinking the standardized, optimized, and quantified approaches in vogue in education today to accommodate the different needs of individual teachers and students.
Challenging the normative paradigm that school readiness is a positive and necessary objective for all young children, this book asserts that the concept is a deficit-based practice that fosters the continuation of discriminatory classifications. Tager draws on findings of a qualitative study to reveal how the neoliberal agenda of school reform based on high-stakes testing sorts and labels children as non-ready, affecting their overall schooling careers. Tager reflects critically on the relationship between race and school readiness, showing how the resulting exclusionary measures perpetuate the marginalization of low-income Black children from an early age. Disrupting expected notions of readiness is imperative to ending practices of structural classism and racism in early childhood education.
This book asks a question that many educators may think, but won’t say out loud: Does compliance with IDEA legislation matter? The author acknowledges that, while compliance with IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) is important, it can also be an administrative burden that detracts from practitioners’ capacity to adequately serve students with disabilities. Using data collected from three suburban school districts, Voulgarides helps us to understand how compliance with IDEA intersects with decades of evidence of racial inequities in student outcomes. This timely and thought-provoking book unpacks the civil rights history of IDEA, examines the impact of its procedural focus on educational practice, and questions why racial inequities in special education persist despite good intentions by policymakers, educators, and school personnel. “This important book addresses critical issues related to the education of students with disabilities and makes the case for why new approaches are needed to ensure that the educational needs of all children are met. Insightful and well researched, this book will be an invaluable resource for educators everywhere.” —Pedro A. Noguera, Distinguished Professor of Education, UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies “This book provides a necessary discussion of racial/ethnic disproportionality and its intersection with special education policy, particularly forcing us to consider a critical question of IDEA: is it enough? Voulgarides shares an amazing description of how policy, individual actors, political forces, and racial/ethnic dynamics operate within a school district and unintentionally result in racial disparities. This is a necessary read for special education policy champions.” —Edward Fergus, Temple University
Talent Development in School helps educators utilize research-based curriculum and strategies to implement talent development in the classroom. This practical guide: Focuses on a talent development model that is centered on teacher learning. Highlights talent development's impact on culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse learners. Details how to apply the talent development model in one's school or district and opening access and opportunity to all students. Reviews current theories, concepts, and research on talent development in the field of gifted education. Is perfect for teachers, coordinators, and administrators. Talent Development in School features techniques for culturally responsive teaching and considerations for how psychosocial skills and noncognitive influences on learning—such as motivation, grit, resiliency, and growth mindset—affect talent development. Written by experts in the field, this book will become a go-to for professional learning and development.
Despite meritocratic claims of equal opportunity, official statistics released by the Ministry of Education, Singapore, reveal that a large segment of the Malay population has sustained the lowest academic achievement from 1987 to 2011. This statistical representation raises the possibility of a politically induced, systemic inequality as a point of investigation. To investigate this seeming contradiction between the rhetoric and practice of equal educational opportunity, Nadira Talib analyses education policies by drawing on a synthesis of philosophical perspectives and critical discourse analysis as a way of making explicit how the historical constitution of the learner is linked to the legitimisation of inequitable education policies that favour corporatist practices. By making explicit how the underlying assumption of the policy ‘logic’ that increasing expenditure on ‘talents’ must necessarily involve the increasing welfare of everybody is both unsubstantiated and arbitrary, the book presents a moral political problem in demonstrating how education policies are unfounded and unsupported through the idea of meritocracy.