What happens when a baby is born with “ambiguous” genitalia or a combination of “male” and “female” body parts? Clinicians and parents in these situations are confronted with complicated questions such as whether a girl can have XY chromosomes, or whether some penises are “too small” for a male sex assignment. Since the 1950s, standard treatment has involved determining a sex for these infants and performing surgery to normalize the infant’s genitalia. Over the past decade intersex advocates have mounted unprecedented challenges to treatment, offering alternative perspectives about the meaning and appropriate medical response to intersexuality and driving the field of those who treat intersex conditions into a deep crisis. Katrina Karkazis offers a nuanced, compassionate picture of these charged issues in Fixing Sex, the first book to examine contemporary controversies over the medical management of intersexuality in the United States from the multiple perspectives of those most intimately involved. Drawing extensively on interviews with adults with intersex conditions, parents, and physicians, Karkazis moves beyond the heated rhetoric to reveal the complex reality of how intersexuality is understood, treated, and experienced today. As she unravels the historical, technological, social, and political forces that have culminated in debates surrounding intersexuality, Karkazis exposes the contentious disagreements among theorists, physicians, intersex adults, activists, and parents—and all that those debates imply about gender and the changing landscape of intersex management. She argues that by viewing intersexuality exclusively through a narrow medical lens we avoid much more difficult questions. Do gender atypical bodies require treatment? Should physicians intervene to control the “sex” of the body? As this illuminating book reveals, debates over treatment for intersexuality force reassessment of the seemingly natural connections between gender, biology, and the body.
The second edition of American Sexual Histories features an updated collection of sixteen articles and their corresponding primary sources that investigate issues related to human sexuality in America from the colonial era to the present day. Fully updated with ten new chapters, featuring recently published essays by prominent scholars in the field Provides readers with the source documents that historians have analyzed in their articles Allows readers to see how historians craft arguments based on available sources Encourages readers to evaluate historical documents, test the interpretations of historians, and draw their own conclusions
This is the first book in English to analyse the medical category of ‘hermaphroditism’ in Spain over the period 1850-1960. It attempts to show how the relationship between the male and female body, biological ‘sex’, gender and sexuality constantly changed in the light of emerging medical, legal and social influences. Tracing the evolution of the hermaphrodite from its association with the ‘marvellous’ to the association with intersexuality and transexuality, this book emphasizes how the frameworks employed by scientists and doctors reflected not only changing international paradigms with respect to ‘hermaphrodite science’ but also social anxieties about shifting gender roles, the evolving discourse on sexuality and, in particular, the increased visibility of the ‘sexual deviancies’ such as homosexuality and changing legislation on marriage and divorce. Finally, we hope to open a space whereby the voice of ‘hermaphrodites’ and ‘intersexuals’ themselves could be heard in the past as agents in the construction of their own destiny as figures deemed ‘in-between’ by medicine and society.
Lijvig en bijzonder goed gedocumenteerd werk over de verschillen tussen de seksen, wat betreft psychologisch functioneren. Met name bepaalde intellectuele capaciteiten en sociale gedragingen, waarvan algemeen wordt aangenomen dat ze verschillend zijn voor mannen en vrouwen, worden onder de loep genomen. De auteurs willen immers een onderscheid maken tussen enerzijds de meningen over sekseverschillen die een soliede feitenbasis hebben en anderzijds deze die louter gebaseerd zijn op veronderstellingen. Het boek doorprikt enkele mythen en geeft ook de sociale implicaties van deze 'ontmaskering' aan. In verband met onderwijs, is vooral het hoofdstuk over intellectuele capaciteiten en cognitieve stijlen van belang (p. 63-134).
Drawing together a team of international scholars, The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology examines the contemporary landscape of all the key theories and theorists, presenting them in the context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. Key features include: · Approximately 300 signed entries fill two volumes · Entries are followed by Cross-References and Further Readings · A Reader's Guide in the front matter groups entries thematically · A detailed Index and the Cross-References provide for effective search-and-browse in the electronic version · Back matter includes a Chronology of theory within the field of psychology, a Master Bibliography, and an annotated Resource Guide to classic books in this field, journals, associations, and their websites The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology is an exceptional and scholarly source for researching the theory of psychology, making it a must-have reference for all academic libraries.
Expanding the Rainbow brings together cutting-edge empirical research with compelling personal narratives about the experiences and relationships of individuals of diverse gender and sexual identities, focusing on the experiences of bi+, poly, kinky, ace, intersex, and trans people.
This book addresses intersex rights violations and analyses intersex people’s legal demands as expressed by intersex activists themselves and delivered through statements and reports issued by intersex rights organisations, the United Nations and the Council of Europe. Intersex people are born with sex characteristics that do not fit typical notions of male or female bodies, as a result of which they are stigmatised, marginalised and denied the recognition of their fundamental rights. Often, they are subjected to involuntary and harmful sex “normalising” surgeries at birth, which violate their bodily integrity, self-determination and informed consent, so as to comply with societal and legal norms. Moreover, binary legal frameworks prevent them from enjoying the rights to access identification documents, start a family, or be free from discrimination in all areas including employment and sports. To elaborate on intersex violations that emanate from binary laws, this book examines the situation of intersex rights in regional jurisdictions worldwide and within the European Union in particular. In the process, it identifies current legal barriers and suggests how intersex people could be accommodated under legal frameworks and achieve sex/gender equality beyond binary definitions.
Since the 1970s, research into ‘Intersex’ has been a central fascination for feminist theorists seeking to make arguments about how men and women are created as social/gender categories. Intersexualization: The Clinic and the Colony takes the case of Olympic runner Caster Semenya as a starting point to explore the issue of determining sex, and the ways in which intersexuality is a ‘threat’ to the distinction between men/women, homosexuality/heterosexuality and white/black. By focusing on the 1950s and the 40 years after, Eckert shows how what she calls intersexualization began in psycho-medical research at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore and UCLA, and has from there spread into cross-cultural anthropological accounts conducted in Papua New Guinea and the Dominican Republic. With cross-cultural intersexualization having been largely neglected in recent literature on intersex, this timely volume describes how such intersexualization derives from the combination of medicalization and pathologization through two crucial parts. The first part, “The Clinic,” describes historical psycho-medical material engaging with hermaphroditism ranging from Greek Mythology up to today. This is followed by “The Colony,” which analyzes, in several close-readings, cross-cultural anthropological, sexological and psychoanalytical accounts contributing to cross-cultural intersexualization. Enclosing a wide range of inter- and transdisciplinary approaches to heteronormative and dichotomously organized frames of knowledge and organization, this volume is essential reading for upper-undergraduate and post-graduate students within the fields of gender studies, social studies of medicine, anthropology,science and technology studies, cultural studies, sociology, and history of medicine.
In a highly-sexualised and media-hyped society, postmenopausal woman often feel pressurised to have 'great sex.' Books and websites prescribe what the menopause should be. And, if it isn't, here's how to fix it. Painful sex and mood swings can be cured by HRT. Some women take the artificial route to remain sexually active. Others choose a natural approach, even if it means dwindling sexual desire. 'I used to seek it out. Now I endure it', said one woman. But few talk about it. 'It's far more of a taboo than talking about death', said another woman. Fading libido can have a profound effect on relationships. 'I feel despair', said a 61 year-old husband. 'I have to accept that my sex life is more or less over.' And another: 'I have never broached this with my wife, but to think I may never have sex again is very dangerous.' Sue explores the lived, felt experience of what it means to be postmenopausal, and looks at how it affects relationships and changes lives.
Life narratives and fiction that represent experiences of hermaphroditism and intersex are at the core of Michaela Koch's study. The analyzed texts from the 19th to the early 21st century are embedded within and contrasted with contemporary debates in medicine, psychology, or activism to reveal the processes of negotiation about the meaning of hermaphroditism and intersex. This cultural studies-informed work challenges both strictly essentialist and constructivist notions. It argues for a differentiated perspective on intersex and hermaphrodite experiences as historically contingent, fully embodied, and nevertheless discursive subject positions.
Interrogating Gendered Pathologies points out and critiques unjust patterns of pathology. Erin A. Frost and Michelle F. Eble assemble a transdisciplinary approach from/to technologies, rhetorics, philosophies, epistemologies, and biomedical data to consider the effects of biomedicine’s gendered norms on people’s lives. Using a range of complementary and intersectional theoretical approaches, contributors ask questions about rhetoric’s role in healthcare and how it differs depending on patient embodiment and the ways nonnormative bodies are pathologized. These chapters engage common narratives about the ways in which gender in healthcare is secondary and highlights the stories of people who have battled to prioritize their own bodies through extraordinary difficulties. Employing a multiplicity of voices, the book represents a number of different perspectives on what it might look like to return health and medical data to embodied experience, to consider the effects of gendered and intersectional biomedical norms on lived realities, and to subvert the power of institutions in ways that move us toward biomedical justice. This collection contributes to the burgeoning field of health and medical rhetorics by rhetorically and theoretically intervening in what are often seen as objective and neutral decisions related to the body and to scientific and medical data about bodies. Interrogating Gendered Pathologies will be of interest to feminist scholars in the field of rhetoric and writing studies, specifically those in the rhetorics of health and medicine, as well as scholars of technical communication, feminist studies, gender studies, technoscience studies, and bioethics. Contributors: Leslie Anglesey, Mary Assad, Beth Boser, Lillian Campbell, Marleah Dean, Lori Beth De Hertogh, Leandra Hernandez, Elizabeth Horn-Walker, Caitlin Leach, Jordan Liz, Miriam Mara, Cathryn Molloy, Kerri Morris, Maria Novotny, Sage Perdue, Colleen Reilly