Frequently characterised as either mercenaries in modern guise or the market's response to a security vacuum, private military companies are commercial firms offering military services ranging from combat and military training and advice to logistical support, and which play an increasingly important role in armed conflicts, UN peace operations, and providing security in unstable states.Executive Outcomes turned around an orphaned conflict in Sierra Leone in the mid-1990s; Military Professional Resources Incorporated (MPRI) was instrumental in shifting the balance of power in the Balkans, enabling the Croatian military to defeat Serb forces and clear the way for the Dayton negotiations; in Iraq, estimates of the number of private contractors on the ground are in the tens of thousands. As they assume more responsibilities in conflict and post-conflict settings, their growing significance raises fundamental questions about their nature, their role in different regions and contexts, and their regulation.From Mercenaries to Market examines these issues with a focus on governance, in particular the interaction between regulation and market forces. It analyses the current legal framework and the needs and possibilities for regulation in the years ahead. The book as a whole is organised around four sets of questions, which are reflected in the four parts of the book. Why and how is regulation of PMCs now a challenging issue? How have problems leading to a call for regulation manifested in different regions and contexts? What regulatory norms and institutions currently exist and how effective are they? What role has the market to play in regulation?
Frequently characterized as either mercenaries in modern guise or the market's response to a security vaccuum, private military companies are commercial firms offering military services ranging from combat and military training and advice to logistical support, and which play an increasingly important role in armed conflicts, UN peace operations, and providing security in unstable states. This work analyzes the current legal framework and the needs and possibilities for regulation in the years ahead, organized around four sets of questions, which are reflected in the four parts of the book. First, why and how is regulation of PMCs now a challenging issue? Secondly, how have problems leading to a call for regulation manifested in different regions and contexts? Third, what regulatory norms and institutions currently exist and how effective are they? And, fourth, what role has the market to play in regulation?
The Markets for Force examines and compares the markets for private military and security contractors in twelve states: Argentina, Guatemala, Peru, Ecuador, the United Kingdom, the Czech Republic, Ukraine, Russia, Afghanistan, China, Canada, and the United States. Editors Molly Dunigan and Ulrich Petersohn argue that the global market for force is actually a conglomeration of many types of markets that vary according to local politics and geostrategic context. Each case study investigates the particular characteristics of the region's market, how each market evolved into its current form, and what consequence the privatized market may have for state military force and the provision of public safety. The comparative standpoint sheds light on better-known markets but also those less frequently studied, such as the state-owned and -managed security companies in China, militaries working for private sector extractive industries in Ecuador and Peru, and the ways warlord forces overlap with private security companies in Afghanistan. An invaluable resource for scholars and policymakers alike, The Markets for Force offers both an empirical analysis of variations in private military and security companies across the globe and deeper theoretical knowledge of how such markets develop. Contributors: Olivia Allison, Oldich Bure, Jennifer Catallo, Molly Dunigan, Scott Fitzsimmons, Maiah Jaskoski, Kristina Mani, Carlos Ortiz, Ulrich Petersohn, Jake Sherman, Christopher Spearin.
Social media and emerging internet technologies have expanded the ideas of marketing approaches. In particular, the phenomenon of the internet in China challenges the common perception of new media environments. Internet Mercenaries and Viral Marketing: The Case of Chinese Social Media presents case studies, textual analysis, media reviews, and in-depth interviews in order to investigate the Chinese “pushing hand” operation from the conceptual perspective of communications and viral marketing. This book is significant to researchers, marketers, and advocates interested in the persuasive influence of social networks.
Cécile Fabre defends an ethical account of war which focuses on the individual, as a rational and moral agent, over collective groups of people. She offers a new account of just and unjust war, exploring wars of national defence, civil wars, humanitarian intervention, wars involving private military forces, and asymmetrical wars.
Gender Ideologies and Military Labor Markets in the U.S. offers a comprehensive analysis of the relationship between changes in military gender ideologies and structural changes in U.S. military and society. By investigating how social and military change have influenced gender ideologies, the author develops an approach that (re-)connects military gender ideologies to the social conditions of their production and distribution and explains their transformation as effects of changing social and political relations and conflicts. Examining the role of different groups of social actors, media debates on women’s military participation and gender ideologies inherent in depictions of military women, the author seeks to contextualise these ideologies are within structural change in the U.S. military and society, relating them to the gender-specific division of labour on civilian and military labor markets. This work provides a deeper understanding of the nexus between military re-structuring processes, women’s military integration, and changes of gender ideologies in regard to war and the military, and will be of great interest to students and scholars of gender, security studies and American politics.
Public functions are increasingly being outsourced to the private sector. This includes activities that impact on human rights and security. Drawing on insights from various disciplines, this book looks at the costs and benefits of privatization and at whether there are limits to this trend.
Outsourcing state functions and the limits of existing regulatory regimes -- Contract as transnational regulatory governance -- The emergence of a transnational private regime for the regulation of PMSCs -- Conclusion -- Notes -- References -- 14. Conclusion: Empire through contract: A private international law perspective -- Abstract -- Introduction -- Self-constituting regimes: Private international law's libertarian view of contract -- Possible antidotes: From the undiscovered DNA of contract law to new global forms of legal pluralism -- Notes -- References -- Index
In The Modern Mercenary, Sean McFate lays bare this opaque world, explaining the economic structure of the industry and showing in detail how firms operate on the ground. A former U.S. Army paratrooper and private military contractor, McFate provides an unparalleled perspective into the nuts and bolts of the industry, as well as a sobering prognosis for the future of war. While at present, the U.S. government and U.S. firms dominate the market, private military companies are emerging from other countries, and warlords and militias have restyled themselves as private security companies in places like Afghanistan and Somalia. To understand how the proliferation of private forces may influence international relations, McFate looks back to the European Middle Ages, when mercenaries were common and contract warfare the norm. He concludes that international relations in the twenty-first century may have more in common with the twelfth century than the twentieth. This "back to the future" situation, which he calls "neomedievalism," is not necessarily a negative condition, but it will produce a global system that contains rather than solves problems.
In original essays written by both senior scholars as well as rising younger scholars in the field of international ethics, this volume addresses the ethics of war in an era when non-state actors are playing an increasingly prominent role in armed conflict.
What limits, if any, should be placed on a government's efforts to spy on its own citizens in the interests of national security? By reframing the relationship between privacy and security One Nation Under Surveillance offers a framework to defend freedom without sacrificing liberty.
This pioneering volume invites scholars from different social science disciplines to contribute their competing perspectives to a far-ranging albeit understudied dimension of globalization. Globalization has been defined as progressively integrated, national product and factor markets, cemented by the revolution in transportation and communications technology. This process has been driven by transnational corporations who have erected intricate, global supply chains. Such commercial advances have, in turn, intensified the interdependence among states and the authors raise a number of questions: Can the multi-variegated, cross-border activities in which such non-state actors engage be analyzed through a single conceptual lens? Can non-state transnational transfers be so clearly distinguished from exchanges in practice? What are the implications of transnational transfers, where material and non-material value is transferred abroad with no assurance, or even expectation of reciprocal compensation, for sovereignty? The case studies range from the impact of worker remittances on failed states to capacity building by global civil society on behalf of nascent NGOs in China to the transfer of security (or insecurity) via peacekeepers, track two diplomats and private security contractors.