Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) has come a long way since early experiments in animals where it was found to induce a sleep-like state and from its use in general anaesthesia in human subjects. It has been found to be a naturally-occurring compound in the brain, a metabolite of GABA, the emerging ubiquitous inhibitory neurotransmitter. This has opened
Prominent experts explain the pharmacology and metabolism of benzodiazepines (LDB) and g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and offer powerful and effective methodologies that will enable better detection of these drugs in various body fluids, as well as in hair. The techniques include highly sensitive immunoassay detection of LDBs, the detection of Rohypnol® and other LDBs by mass spectrometry, and the ultrasensitive detection of GHB. State-of-the-art and highly practical, Benzodiazepines and GHB: Detection and Pharmacology offers toxicologists, forensic scientists, and clinical chemists today's most effective methods for detecting these widely abused drugs that are sometimes found associated with criminal acts.
This book provides a broad reference covering important drugs of abuse including amphetamines, opiates, and steroids. It also covers psychoactive plants such as caffeine, peyote, and psilocybin. It provides chemical structures, analytical methods, clinical features, and treatments of these drugs of abuse, serving as a highly useful, in-depth supplement to a general medical toxicology book. The style allows for the easy application of the contents to searchable databases and other electronic products, making this an essential resource for practitioners in medical toxicology, industrial hygiene, occupational medicine, pharmaceuticals, environmental organizations, pathology, and related fields.
Neuropathology of Drug Addictions and Substance Misuse, Volume 2: Stimulants, Club and Dissociative Drugs, Hallucinogens, Steroids, Inhalants and International Aspects is the second of three volumes in this informative series and offers a comprehensive examination of the adverse consequences of the most common drugs of abuse. Each volume serves to update the reader’s knowledge on the broader field of addiction as well as to deepen understanding of specific addictive substances. Volume 2 addresses stimulants, club and dissociative drugs, hallucinogens, and inhalants and solvents. Each section provides data on the general, molecular and cellular, and structural and functional neurological aspects of a given substance, with a focus on the adverse consequences of addictions. Research shows that the neuropathological features of one addiction are often applicable to those of others, and understanding these commonalties provides a platform for studying specific addictions in more depth and may ultimately lead researchers toward new modes of understanding, causation, prevention, and treatment. However, marshalling data on the complex relationships between addictions is difficult due to the myriad material and substances. Offers a modern approach to understanding the pathology of substances of abuse, offering an evidence-based ethos for understanding the neurology of addictions Fills an existing gap in the literature by serving as a “one-stop-shopping synopsis of everything to do with the neuropathology of drugs of addiction and substance misuse Includes in each chapter: list of abbreviations, abstract, introduction, applications to other addictions and substance misuse, mini-dictionary of terms, summary points, 6+ figures and tables, and full references Offers coverage of preclinical, clinical, and population studies, from the cell to whole organs, and from the genome to whole body
Finally - a book that covers all aspects of the illicit use of cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy and/or designer drugs such as GHB, written by two experts in their field. The use of these drugs remains a continuous threat in health and medical care delivery, and this book will be an essential asset to the physician who may have to face the evaluation of patients whose use of these drugs compromises an effective treatment plan for other health issues. The book has been conceived to fill the void in existing physician reference materials, and provides a comprehensive review of the theoretical knowledge and scope of pharmacotherapy in individuals who are hooked on a psychoactive substance. While detailed scientific information is obtainable in other major articles, the book's straightforward format and style, along with its illustrations, will make for easy reading as emphasis is put on information specifically related to drugs that occur most abused in today’s society. The information provided is based on clinical practice rather than pure experimental data, which will give the physician more effective tools useful in their daily practice. Many mechanisms of action of abuse are described in detail and references are provided to direct the reader to further sources for additional information. As a special feature, the book incorporates uncluttered tables and charts, which result in immediate clarification of the mode of action on the central nervous system and the reason for misuse, thus avoiding usual long and fatiguing text in common reference books. The book aims to give the reader a clear and concise plan on what to do when being faced with an overdose situation. A well-organized Table of Contents rapidly leads the reader from general pharmacological issues to the specific overdose syndrome and its management. Additionally, significant emphasis is placed on the practical do's and don’ts for physicians, with special reference to the predictive signs of aberrant drug-related behavior and the identification of the drug diverter by using urine drug screening.
Written and edited by leading clinicians and researchers in sleep medicine, this is the first book to focus on the causes, consequences and treatment of disorders of excessive sleepiness. Extensive coverage is provided for all known causes of sleepiness, including sleep deprivation, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, narcolepsy and other hypersomnias of central origin, shift work, and medical and psychiatric disorders. Since many causes of sleepiness are difficult to differentiate from each other, and treatment modalities can vary greatly from one disorder to another, this book helps the clinician to formulate a differential diagnosis that will ultimately lead to the correct diagnosis. Epidemiology, evaluation of the sleepy patient, diagnostic investigations including neuroimaging, subjective and objective testing, cognitive effects of sleepiness, motor vehicle driving issues, medico-legal aspects of sleepiness, and therapy are also discussed in detail. This is an essential resource for neurologists, psychiatrists and sleep specialists.
With contributions from leading international academics across the biological sciences, this handbook takes a critical look at the key contemporary issues and debates in the field. The 31 chapters are divided into four parts: Part I Determination of Substance Misuse Part II PK and PD in Relation to Patterns of Use Part III Detection and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Use Part IV Controversies and New Approaches This Handbook is an excellent reference text for the growing number of academics, students, scientists and practitioners in the drug and alcohol studies community, and will be a vital resource to the allied professions involved in work-place drug testing, clinical toxicology, and forensic science.
An increasing number of novel psychoactive drugs are currently available and sold as 'legal highs' or 'research chemicals'. These New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) constitute a broad range of hundreds of natural and synthetic drugs, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, synthetic opioids and other classes, which use has resulted in a significantly growing number of intoxication and mortality, as reported by emergency and poison centres from all over the world. Definition of “NPS” includes any substance that has recently become available and has been designed purposely to replace illegal drugs, although not necessarily of new synthesis. Use of NPS is dramatically increased in the last decade and represents a serious risk for the public health. Their ever-evolving chemical structure, the possibility to distribute in real time through the Internet and social networks information about their use and effects have dramatically challenged public health and drug policies internationally. NPS recently attracted great attention, but most are still unregulated and proposed online as legal alternatives to traditional illicit drugs. Unfortunately, this area is still poorly investigated and very limited information are available so far on their nature and potential risks. The phenomenon of NPS requires multi-national and multi-disciplinary collaborations to improve our knowledge on this changing drug market, to share information and define good practices at a global level. Political and educational efforts are indispensable to regulate this mutable scenario and to inform the public about health consequences of NPS use. Clinicians and emergency staff should be aware that NPS may cause severe health consequences and unexpected adverse effects, and be informed on how to recognized and treat specific intoxication cases. Considering the widespread use of NPS and paucity of information about their toxicology and pharmacology, this Research Topic will be useful to understand the new trends in the scenario of drug use, abuse and addiction to inform professionals and general public about the health problems caused by NPS and to help drug-control policies to adopt suitable control measures.