The monograph constitutes an attempt to demonstrate how Cognitive Grammar (CG) can be employed in the foreign language classroom with a view to aiding learners in better understanding the complexities of English grammar. Its theoretical part provides a brief overview of the main tenets of Cognitive Grammar as well as illustrating how the description of English tense and aspect can be approached from a traditional and a CG perspective. The empirical part reports the findings of an empirical study which aimed to compare the effects of instruction utilizing traditional pedagogic descriptions with those grounded in CG on the explicit an implicit knowledge of the Present Simple and Present Continuous Tenses. The book closes with the discussion of directions for further research when it comes to the application of CG to language pedagogy as well as some pedagogic implications
Arguably the whole point of education is to effect change in what people know and are able to do. Globalization has contributed to a common perception worldwide of the need to introduce changes to the teaching and learning of languages. The success of many attempts to do so has been limited by insufficient consideration of implementation contexts. Understanding Language Classroom Contexts explores and illustrates how what happens in any (language) classroom is influenced by (and can be an influence on) the contexts in which it is situated. A clear understanding of these influences is thus the starting point for planning effective change. The book considers many visible and invisible features of the multiple layers of any context, and provides a framework for understanding the types of factors that may influence whether changes (planned by a teacher or externally initiated) are likely to be successful. The book will help teachers (and educational managers or change planners outside the classroom) to understand why their classrooms are as they are and so to make informed decisions about what can or cannot (or not easily) be changed, and suggests how any changes might be appropriately managed.
What choices do language teachers have in making materials and procedures more effective in the classroom? What role does mental imagery play in these choices? In this original book, Earl Stevick shows how an understanding of imagery can aid teachers in identifying and evaluating man), of the alternatives available for their day-to-day work in the classroom. Using samples from current language textbooks at all levels, he shows how combinations from thirty-three different options can generate both the needed techniques and their variants. This book can thus be seen as a convincing development of the theme in his earlier volume, Teaching and Learning Languages, that language teaching should be a matter of informed choice.
In this collection of essays, a distinguished group of innovative teachers and writers describe the approaches and techniques they have incorporated into their own teaching. The articles are designed to help classroom teachers make language classes more participatory and communication oriented. Successive articles deal with the structure of interaction in large and small groups: imaginative activities for listening, speaking, reading, writing, and testing; the use of poetry, song, and drama; how to perform grammar rules rather than recite them; the special contribution of authentic materials; using audio and video as well as computer software to enhance learning, tapping the community as a resource; learning to interact in different cultural styles; and preparing the student for real-life professional use of language. Teachers of any language and teachers in training will find in this volume a wealth of original and practical ideas for the classroom.
The Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an authoritative reference dealing with all aspects of this increasingly important field of study. Offering a comprehensive range of articles on contemporary language teaching and its history, it has been produced specifically for language teaching professionals and as a reference work for academic studies at postgraduate level. In this new edition, every single entry has been reviewed and updated with reference to new developments and publications. Coverage has been expanded to reflect new technological, global and academic developments, with particular attention to areas such as online and distance learning, teacher and learner cognition, testing, assessment and evaluation, global English and teacher education. Themes and disciplines covered include: Methods and materials, including new technologies and materials development Contexts and concepts, such as mediation, risk-taking in language learning and intercomprehension Influential figures from the early days of language teaching to the contemporary Related disciplines, such as psychology, anthropology and corpus linguistics It covers the teaching of specific languages, including Japanese, Chinese, Arabic and African languages, as well as English, French, German and Spanish. There are thirty five overview articles dealing with issues such as communicative language teaching, early language learning, teacher education and syllabus and curriculum design. A further 160 entries focus on topics such as bilingualism, language laboratories and study abroad. Numerous shorter items examine language and cultural institutions, professional associations and acronyms. Multiple cross-references enable the user to browse from one entry to another, and there are suggestions for further reading. Written by an international team of specialists, the Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning is an invaluable resource and reference manual for anyone with a professional or academic interest in the subject.
There have been a number of books published on various aspects of materials development for language teaching but Developing Materials for Language Teaching is the only one which provides a comprehensive coverage of the main aspects and issues in the field. This second edition brings it completely up to date and expands on the original book. It deals with advances in IT and an increasingly globalized world. It is the only publication which views current developments in materials development through the eyes of developers and users of materials from all over the world. In doing so it applies principles to practice in ways demonstrated to facilitate the effectiveness of language learning materials. The chapters are written so that the book provides critical overviews of recent developments in materials development and at the same time acts as a stimulus for development and innovation in the field. It is intended both for use as a course book on postgraduate and teacher training courses and as a resource for the stimulus and refreshment of teachers, publishers and applied linguists in the field. The book contains updated versions of many of the chapters in the 2003 edition plus new chapters on corpus-informed materials development, materials development for blended learning, materials development for EAP, materials development for ESOL and materials development for young learners.
This volume highlights the effects of self-concept on L2 learning and teaching by considering a wide range of theories as well as their practical application. The book includes chapters discussing various approaches related to self-concept; empirical studies related to the selves of the learners; research from the teachers' perspective on students' self-concept and L2 motivational intervention studies associated with the development of self-concept of language learners.
Materials Development in Language Teaching aims to help readers apply current theoretical principles and research findings to the practical realities of developing and exploiting classroom materials. The authors also suggest new ideas and directions in materials development, which readers can pursue for themselves. This book is accessible to readers with little previous experience in the field, and is essential reading for all those involved in developing materials for language teaching. In the second edition of this highly popular title, each chapter has been comprehensively revised and updated to take into account both recent research and the significant technological developments since the first edition was published in 1998. Two new chapters have been added to assess the potential of electronic media for materials development. These chapters include an overview of the technologies available, as well as individual case studies and activities.
This volume offers concrete answers to the question of how we can use imagery to enrich the teaching of reading and writing. The chapters are organized according to two guiding principles. First, each addresses specific aspects of the inextricable integration of imagery and language in the teaching of reading and writing. Imagery is not privileged over language; the fusion of the two is emphasized. Second, each focuses on a particular kind of imagery--mental, graphic, or verbal--describing teaching/learning strategies based on the deployment of that kind of imagery in the classroom. There is currently a renewed acknowledgment of the importance of imagery in meaning. The rapid spread of the World Wide Web, computer interfacing, and virtual reality further highlights the need to attend to the influence of imagery in a networked world. In response to these shifts in scholarly and cultural perspectives, NCTE has established a committee on visual literacy, and an emphasis on visual literacy has been incorporated into the IRA/NCTE Standards for the English Language Arts. This book contributes significantly toward filling the need for explicit and specific theory-based methods teachers can use to integrate imagery into their pedagogy. Accessible and lively chapters include classroom activities and student-generated examples. Language and Image in the Reading-Writing Classroom is an excellent text for preservice and in-service pedagogy courses and an important resource for practicing teachers, researchers, and professionals in the field.
Children's literature can be a powerful way to encourage and empower EFL students but is less commonly used in the classroom than adult literature. This text provides a comprehensive introduction to children's and young adult literature in EFL teaching. It demonstrates the complexity of children's literature and how it can encourage an active community of second language readers: with multilayered picturebooks, fairy tales, graphic novels and radical young adult fiction. It examines the opportunities of children's literature in EFL teacher education, including: the intertexuality of children's literature as a gate-opener for canonised adult literature; the rich patterning of children's literature supporting Creative Writing; the potential of interactive drama projects. Close readings of texts at the centre of contemporary literary scholarship, yet largely unknown in the EFL world, provide an invaluable guide for teacher educators and student teachers, including works by David Almond, Anthony Browne, Philip Pullman and J.K.Rowling. Introducing a range of genres and their significance for EFL teaching, this study makes an important new approach accessible for EFL teachers, student teachers and teacher educators.