A four-volume reference comprising approximately seven hundred alphabetically ordered entries, the IEL provides detailed and up-to-date information on all branches of linguistics. The IEL encompasses the full range of the contemporary field of linguistics, including historical, comparative, formal, mathematical, functional, and philosophical linguistics. It gives special attention to interrelations within branches of linguistics and to relations of linguistics with other disciplines, and covers areas of intersection with the social and behavioral sciences, as well as interdisciplinary work in language and literatures, mathematical linguistics, computational linguistics, and applied linguistics. Providing abundant examples with literal glosses and English translations, the IEL offers extensive coverage of languages and language families, from English and Japanese to Hittite and Yoruba. Bringing together the latest information on the diverse subject matters of linguistics, and including a network of cross references, this encyclopedia is an invaluable resource.
Why care about the environment? Is the earth's climate really changing for the worse? What are CFCs exactly? And who or what is the WTO? What are the causes of environmental problems? Who are the main actors, and what are the main ideas and issues in international environmental politics? Which countries have the best/worst environmental record and policies? The International Encyclopedia of Environmental Politics is the essential reference source to enable all those with an interest in the politics of the environment - particularly students and academics working within political science - to answer these questions, and to explore many other related topics in international environmental politics. It will be welcomed as an essential teaching resource and a trusty companion to independent study. Written by a team of international experts, the Encyclopedia is vital for fact-checking, provides authoritative initial orientation to a particular topic or issue and will serve as a solid starting point for wider explanation. With over 300 fully cross-referenced entries, many of which are followed with suggestions for further reading, the Encyclopedia includes: * Country and regional entries, with country entries giving a concise overview of the history, main actors, issues and policies related to its environmental politics * Normative and ethical dimensions of environmental politics, from animal rights, social and global justice to deep ecology * Environmental movements, organizations, struggles and actors from local to international levels * Issues in international environmental politics such as global warming, biodiversity, trade and the environment * Prominent individuals (historical and current) who have inspired or been actively involved in international environmental politics - such as Mahatma Gandhi, Petra Kelly, Vandana Shiva and Aldo Leopold * Central topics and issues in environmental politics - such as global warming, globalization, wildlife preservation, eco-taxes, energy production and consumption, sustainable development and the World Trade Organisation
The International Encyclopedia of Curriculum is a unique collection of analytical and empirical studies on curriculum-related issues. Its 280 articles, authored by experts from 22 countries, are grouped in two sections. The first, Curriculum as a Domain of Enquiry, contains articles dealing with general topics in this field. The second, Specific Study Areas, contains articles on more than 120 subjects currently taught in schools. It is the first attempt to provide in a single volume a comprehensive review of approaches and problems related to teaching traditional school subjects such as mathematics, history, and classical languages, as well as the innovative ones such as film studies, women's studies, communication skills, set theory in mathematics and energy education. The book is an invaluable tool for educationists, educational administrators, supervisors, researchers, policy makers and curriculum planners, and a source of information and inspiration for teachers and school-level curriculum co-ordinators.
This reference defines the rapidly emerging interdisciplinary field of literature and science. An introductory essay traces the history of the field, its growing reputation, and the current state of research. Broad in scope, the volume covers world literature from its beginnings to the present day and illuminates the role of science in literature and literary studies. This volume includes over 650 A-Z entries on: topics and themes, significant writers and scientists, key works, and important theories and methodologies.
Since the 1970s the cognitive sciences have offered multidisciplinary ways of understanding the mind and cognition. The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (MITECS) is a landmark, comprehensive reference work that represents the methodological and theoretical diversity of this changing field. At the core of the encyclopedia are 471 concise entries, from Acquisition and Adaptationism to Wundt and X-bar Theory. Each article, written by a leading researcher in the field, provides an accessible introduction to an important concept in the cognitive sciences, as well as references or further readings. Six extended essays, which collectively serve as a roadmap to the articles, provide overviews of each of six major areas of cognitive science: Philosophy; Psychology; Neurosciences; Computational Intelligence; Linguistics and Language; and Culture, Cognition, and Evolution. For both students and researchers, MITECS will be an indispensable guide to the current state of the cognitive sciences.