Released on 2011-03-03Categories Science

Inventions and their inventors 1750-1920

Inventions and their inventors 1750-1920

Author: Dave Rogers

Publisher: M-Y Books Limited

ISBN: 9781906986582

Category: Science

Page: 198

View: 665

Our everyday lives are continually influenced by inventors whose ideas have led to commercial products available in most high streets across the civilised world. For the most part these creative individuals have remained relatively unknown. Yet some of the companies set up by the successful inventors survive to this day albeit with company names no longer associated with the original idea. Volume 1 of this two volume set documents some of the key inventions from the 'Spinning Jenny' invented by Hargraves in the late eighteenth century, to some of the most commercially successful ideas of the early 20th century.
Released on 2015-10-06Categories History

Class and Colonialism in Antarctic Exploration, 1750–1920

Class and Colonialism in Antarctic Exploration, 1750–1920

Author: Ben Maddison

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317319429

Category: History

Page: 272

View: 514

Between 1750 and 1920 over 15,000 people visited Antarctica. Despite such a large number the historiography has ignored all but a few celebrated explorers. Maddison presents a study of Antarctic exploration, telling the story of these forgotten facilitators, he argues that Antarctic exploration can be seen as an offshoot of European colonialism.
Released on 2017-02-21Categories Art

The Restoration of Paintings in Paris, 1750-1815

The Restoration of Paintings in Paris, 1750-1815

Author: Noémie Étienne

Publisher: Getty Publications

ISBN: 9781606065167

Category: Art

Page: 318

View: 545

The decades following the 1973 publication of Alessandro Conti’s Storia del Restauro have seen considerable scholarly interest in the development of restoration in France in the second half of the eighteenth century. A number of technical treatises and biographies of restorers have offered insight into restoration practice. The Restoration of Paintings in Paris, 1750–1815, however, is the first book to situate this work within the broader historical and philosophical contexts of the time. Drawing on previously unpublished primary material from archives in Paris, Berlin, Rome, and Venice, Noémie Étienne combines art history with anthropology and sociology to survey the waning decades of the Ancien Régime and early post– Revolution France. Initial chapters present the diversity of restoration practice, encompassing not only royal institutions and the Louvre museum but also private art dealers, artists, and craftsmen, and examine questions of trade secrecy and the changing role of the restorer. Following chapters address the influence of restoration and exhibition on the aesthetic understanding of paintings as material objects. The book closes with a discussion of the institutional and political uses of restoration, along with an art historical consideration of such key concepts as authenticity, originality, and stability of artworks, emphasizing the multilayered dimension of paintings by such important artists as Titian and Raphael. There is also a useful dictionary of the main restorers active in France between 1750 and 1815.
Released on 2001Categories Art

Light!

Light!

Author: Andreas Blühm

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822029514841

Category: Art

Page: 282

View: 904

Of all the revolutionary changes brought about by the industrial age perhaps the most extraordinary and far-reaching was the transformation of light. Scientists described its hidden laws to the public for the first time. Artists found radical ways of depicting it. Inventors found new ways of making it. The lives of ordinary people changed forever as streets, shops, theaters, and their own homes were brilliantly illuminated, first by gas, and then, even more dazzlingly, by electricity. The story is told here for the first time in its entirety. The book describes the inventions still with us, like electric light, the microscope, and photography, as well as arcane reminders of a vanished world, such as the heliostat, the lithophane, and the magic lantern. It portrays a revolution in the arts: Caspar David Friedrich depicting twilight, the Impressionists conjuring up sunlight. And it debates the changing symbolism of light: the meaning of the Enlightenment, the light of God' truth, the nightmarish light of the furnace by night. Above all, it delineates the changing lives of people. Setting masterpieces of painting alongside contemporary scientific instruments, theater paraphernalia, and domestic articles, Light! captures the history of human perception, understanding, and ingenuity.
Released on 2021-12-09Categories Business & Economics

Ethics for Bioengineering Scientists

Ethics for Bioengineering Scientists

Author: Howard Winet

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781000488111

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 344

View: 383

This book introduces bioengineers and students who must generate and/or report scientific data to the ethical challenges they will face in preserving the integrity of their data. It provides the perspective of reaching ethical decisions via pathways that treat data as clients, to whom bioengineering scientists owe a responsibility that is an existential component of their professional identity. The initial chapters lay a historical, biological and philosophical foundation for ethics as a human activity, and data as a foundation of science. The middle chapters explore ethical challenges in lay, engineering, medical and bioengineering scientist settings. These chapters focus on microethics (individual behavior) and cases that showcase the consequences of violating data integrity. Macroethics (policy) is dealt with in the Enrichment sections at the end of the chapters, with essay problems and subjects for debates (in a classroom setting). The book can be used for individual study, using links in the Enrichment sections to access cases and media presentations like PBS’ "Ethics in America". The final chapters explore the impact of bioengineering science ethics on patients via medical product development, its regulation by the FDA, and the contribution of data integrity violation to product failure. The book was developed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in bioengineering. It also contains much needed material that researchers and academics would find valuable (e.g., FDA survey and lab animal research justification). This book Introduces an approach to ethical decision-making based on treating data as clients Compares the ethics of three professions; engineering, medicine, and bioengineering Provides five moral theories to choose from for evaluating ethical decisions, and includes a procedure for applying them to moral analysis, and application of the procedure to example cases Examines core concepts, like autonomy, confidentiality, conflict of interest, and justice Explains the process of developing a medical product under FDA regulation Explores the role of lawyers and the judiciary in product development, including intellectual property protection Examines a range of ethical cases, from the historical Tuskegee autonomy case to the modern CRISPR-Cas9 patent case. Howard Winet, PhD is an Adjunct Professor recall, Orthopaedic Surgery and Bioengineering at University of California, Los Angeles.