Eva Becker assesses the US financial crisis as a crisis of regulatory data, information and knowledge. Based on the Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission’s interviews as well her own interviews, and drawing on Capture Theory and recent reformulations thereof, she develops “knowledge capture” as a theoretic framework to assess financial regulation under conditions of 21st century complexity.
Mirroring the long-established structure of the financial industry, EU financial regulation as we know it today approaches banking, insurance and investment services separately and often divergently. In recent decades however, the clear separation between financial sectors has gradually evaporated, as business lines have converged across sectors and FinTech solutions have emerged which do not fit traditional sector boundaries. As the contours of the traditional tripartition in the financial industry have faded, the diverging regulatory and supervisory treatment of these sectors has become increasingly at odds with economic reality. This book brings together insights developed by distinguished researchers and industry professionals in a series of articles analysing the main areas of EU financial regulation from a cross-sectoral perspective. For each specific research theme – including prudential regulation, corporate governance and conduct of business rules – the similarities, as well as gaps, overlaps and unjustifiable differences between banking, securities and insurance regulation, are clearly presented and discussed. This innovative research approach is aimed at informing lawmakers and policymakers on potential improvements to EU financial regulation whilst also supporting legal and compliance professionals applying the current framework or looking to streamline compliance processes.
The Financial Crisis was a cross-sector crisis that fundamentally affected modern society. Regulation, as a concept, was both blamed for allowing the crisis to happen, but also tasked with developing and implementing solutions in the wake of the crash. In this book, a number of specialists from a range of fields have contributed their insights into the effect of the Financial Crisis upon the regulatory frameworks affecting their fields, how regulators have responded to the Crisis, and then what this may mean for the future of regulation within those industries. These analyses are joined by a picture of past financial crises – which reveals interesting patterns – and then analyses of architectural regulatory models that were fundamentally affected by the Crisis. The book aims to allow sector specialists the freedom to share their insights so that, potentially, a broader picture can be identified. Providing an interesting and thought-provoking account of this societally impactful era, this book will help the reader develop a more informed understanding of the potential future of financial regulation. The book will be of value to researchers, students, advanced level students, regulators, and policymakers.
The architecture of global economic and financial governance has undergone a deep and pervasive reform in the last ten years, radically transforming international institutions and groups, such as the International Monetary Fund, the G7, and the G20. This book investigates the new, unsettled order which is now prevailing, driven by the change in the balance of power between advanced economies and key emerging market economies. Bringing together multiple strands of analysis, traditionally kept separate, Reforming Global Economic Governance: An Unsettled Order particularly explores the role of Europe within this changing world. The book documents and examines a broad range of events, building on methods from economics and other disciplines, as well as on the insights from the author’s personal involvement. This innovative approach allows the reader to ascertain the defining features of the reform: the increasing fragmentation of governance; the interconnectedness of its different elements; and the strong concern for inclusiveness. Furthermore, it presents analyses highlighting the controversial nature of the new order which underpins the current policy debate on international economic relations, including the resurgence of nationalism and trade conflicts. Through these explorations, this engaging book has direct relevance for the future prospects of international economic affairs. Offering a comprehensive view of these issues, this accessible text will appeal to scholars, insiders, and the general reader. Its detailed and thorough analyses will also be of great use to those studying economics, international political economy, and international relations.
Over the past several decades, as the pace of globalization has accelerated, operational issues of international coordination have often been overlooked. For example, the global financial crisis that began in 2007 is attributed, in part, to a lack of regulatory oversight. As a result, supranational organizations, such as the G-20, the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund, have prioritized strengthening of the international financial architecture and providing opportunities for dialogue on national policies, international co-operation, and international financial institutions. Prevailing characteristics of the global economic systems, such as the increasing power of financial institutions, changes in the structure of global production, decline in the authority of nation-states over their national economy, and creation of global institutional setting, e.g., global governance have created the conditions for a naturally evolving process towards enabling national epistemic communities to create institutions that comply with global rules and regulations can control crises. In this context, transfer of technical knowledge from the larger organizations and its global epistemic communities to member communities is becoming a policy tool to “convince” participants in the international system to have similar ideas about which rules will govern their mutual participation. In the realm of finance and banking regulation, the primary focus is on transfer of specialized and procedural knowledge in technical domains (such as accounting procedures, payment systems, and corporate governance principles), thereby promoting institutional learning at national and local levels. In this volume, the authors provide in-depth analysis of initiatives to demonstrate how this type of knowledge generated at the international organization level, is codified into global standards, and disseminated to members, particularly in the developing world, where the legal and regulatory infrastructure is often lacking. They argue that despite the challenges, when a country intends to join the global system, its institutions and economic structures need to move toward the global norms. In so doing, they shed new light on the dynamics of knowledge transfer, financial regulation, economic development, with particular respect to supporting global standards and avoiding future crises.
Five years have passed since the outbreak of one of the worst financial crises the world has ever witnessed. Yet, despite the exceedingly diverse range of publications that have sought to explain the causes and the logic of the crisis, central questions have remained unanswered. Indeed, not only has systemic risk become a buzzword, but it has also developed into an acute threat. But what exactly constitutes the very essence of this concept, and ought it to be considered an economic or a political phenomenon? In addressing these questions, this volume draws upon political economy as an approach to analyze the concept of systemic risk as well as corresponding dilemmas of political order, legitimacy, and expertise. The resulting discussion posits major consequences for the political governance of financial systems in the increasingly interconnected world of the twenty-first century.
Banking Regulation in China provides an in-depth analysis of the country's contemporary banking regulatory system, focusing on regulation in practice. By drawing on public and private interest theories relating to bank regulation, He argues that controlled development of the banking sector transformed China's banks into more market-oriented institutions and increased public sector growth. This work proves that bank regulation is the primary means through which the Chinese government achieves its political and economic objectives rather than using it as a vehicle for maintaining efficient financial markets.
The ramifications of the Global Financial Crisis, which erupted in 2007, continue to surprise not only the general public but also finance professionals, economists, and journalists. Faced with this challenge, Preparing for the Next Financial Crisis goes back to basics. The authors ask: what do theory and empirical observations tell us about the causes and the consequences of financial crisis and instability? In what has become an increasingly complex financial world, what lessons can we learn from economic policies, which have been implemented, and research, which has developed extremely rapidly in recent years, so as not to repeat past mistakes? In this comprehensive review of the literature, which is both complete and balanced, the authors highlight the points of consensus among economists and policymakers. They assess the capacity of economic policies and institutions in limiting the cost of financial instability. In conclusion, they ask if the financial system has become safer, in the light especially of the Covid-19 Global Crisis. Ten years after the GFC crisis, this is a timely review of the reform agenda, the progress made, and the areas where further changes need to be made to address new risks and challenges.
Financial regulation has dramatically evolved and strengthened since the crisis on both sides of the Atlantic, with enhanced international coordination through the G-20 and the Financial Stability Board and, at the regional level, a definite contribution from the European Union. However the new regulatory environment has its critics, with many divergent voices arguing that over-regulation has become a root cause of our current economic stagnation. This book provides a bigger picture view of the impact and future of financial regulation in the EU, exploring the relationship between microeconomic incentives and macroeconomic growth, regulation and financial integration, and the changes required in economic policy to further European integration. Bringing together contributions from law, economics and management science, it offers readers an accessible but rigorous understanding of the current state of play of the regulatory environment, and on the future challenges. Coverage will include: • A review of the recent regulatory changes from a legal and economic perspective • Analysis of how the economic model of financial institutions and entities is impacted by the new frameworks • How to improve securitization and new instruments under MIFID II • Issues in the enhanced supervision under delegated acts for AIFMD, CRR-CRD IV and Solvency II • How long term funding can be supplied in lieu of the non-conventional monetary policies • A new architecture for a safer and more efficient European financial system Financial Regulation in the EU provides much needed clarity on the impact of new financial regulation and the future of the economy, and will prove a must have reference for all those working in, researching and affected by these changes.
Explore Islamic finance at a deeper level Intermediate Islamic Finance: Theory and Practice fills the gap for students and professionals who are already familiar with the fundamentals of Islamic finance, but would like to gain an enhanced understanding of Islamic finance theories and practices. This comprehensive text provides you with coverage of global developments and describes the role of Islamic finance within the global finance community to guide you in your understanding of this important aspect of the international financial landscape. The book references advance concepts and specific problems in the practice of Islamic finance, provides suggested further readings for each chapter, offers details of advanced analysis, and presents key data in visual form via graphs, figures, and tables. Profound changes have taken place in the financial landscape over the past few decades, including major innovations in financial instruments and substantial changes in regulation. With global financial markets becoming increasingly important players in the industry, it is critical that today's financial professionals understand the essence and implications of key Islamic finance theories and practices. Build upon your fundamental understanding of Islamic finance Explore some areas of convergence and conflict between Islamic finance and conventional finance Strengthen the harmony between Islamic and conventional finance theories and their applications Prepare for a well-rounded career in finance by better understanding how Islamic finance principles apply Intermediate Islamic Finance: Theory and Practice is an essential text for graduate and post-graduate finance students, economists, researchers, bankers, financial regulators, policymakers, and members of the business community who want to develop a deeper understanding of Islamic finance theories and practices.
Coalitions of consumer groups, NGOs, and trade unions have traditionally been considered politically weak compared to well-organized and resourceful financial sector groups which dominate or "capture" financial regulatory decisions. However, following the 2008 financial crisis, civil society groups have been seen to exert much more influence, with politicians successfully implementing financial reform in spite of industry opposition. Drawing on literature from social movement research and regulatory politics, this book shows how diffuse interests were represented in financial regulatory overhauls in both the United States (US) and the European Union (EU). Four cases of reform in the post-crisis regulatory context are analyzed: the creation of a new Consumer Financial Protection Bureau in the US; the introduction of new consumer protection regulations through EU directives; the failure of attempts to introduce a financial transaction tax in the US; and the agreement of 11 EU member states to introduce such a tax. It shows how building coalitions with important elite allies outside and inside government helped traditionally weak interest groups transcend a lack of material resources to influence and shape regulatory policy. By engaging with a less well-known side of the debate, it explains how business power was curbed and diverse interests translated into financial regulatory policy.
First proposed in 1994, the Twin Peaks model of financial system regulation employs two specialist peak regulators: one charged with the maintenance of financial system stability, and the other with market conduct and consumer protection. This volume, with contributions from over thirty scholars and senior regulators, provides an in-depth analysis of the similarities and differences in the Twin Peaks regimes that have been adopted around the world. Chapters examine the strengths and weaknesses of the model, provide lessons from Australia (the first to adopt the model), and offer a comparative look at the potential suitability of the model in leading non-Twin Peaks jurisdictions. A key resource for central bankers, public policy analysts, lawyers, economists, politicians, academics and students, this work provides readers with a comprehensive understanding of the Twin Peaks model, and a roadmap for countries considering its adoption.