This book presents the basics of the non-invasive geophysical method for groundwater investigation, called Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) or Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR), and its practical application to the problems of groundwater localization and aquifer characterization. The method is based on the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) phenomenon and is selectively sensitive to groundwater. The main aims of the author are to teach the reader the basic principles of the method as well as to formulate consistent approximate models, leading to reasonably simple inverse problems. Containing an extensive bibliography, numerous practical and numerical examples as well as a detailed presentation of the nuts and bolts of the method based on the long-term experience of SNMR development and practical use, this book is useful for students, scientists and professional engineers working in the field of hydrogeophysics and hydrogeology. Contents 1. SNMR Imaging for Groundwater. 2. The Basics of NMR. 3. Forward Modeling. 4. Inversion. 5. Link Between SNMR and Aquifer Parameters.
During the period from October 1997 to January 1998 the author has further developed the understanding of NMR physics, improved software for forward and inverse modeling of the NMR signal, and conducted field tests on sites in Colorado and New Mexico. One important result from the forward modeling was that the field strength of the signals is concentrated under the loop. This indicates that little lateral dissipation occurs. The author received the NUMIS/NMR system (manufactured by IRIS Instruments, France) in late July, 1997. In July and early August, 1997, potential test sites were visited, and several test sites were selected and permitted. The first NMR test measurements were made in mid-August, 1997. The instrument malfunctioned during mid-September, 1997, and was returned to IRIS for repairs. Time lost due to malfunction, repairs, and shipping was about one month. Many NMR measurements have been made at sites in Colorado and New Mexico. Parks often have been selected as test sites due to ease of permitting, the relatively large open space, and general lack of powerlines. Noise from power lines severely degrades the NMR data quality. The NMR data acquired at the first three sites in Colorado (Bear Creek, Clear Creek, and Prospect) was either severely distorted by powerline noise or did not indicate significant groundwater occurrences. The NMR data taken at Cherry Creek were of good quality and also indicated significant groundwater. The NMR data acquired at three sites with relatively shallow ground water levels around Socorro, New Mexico, did not detect any ground water due to severe signal distortion by magnetite, a magnetic mineral. Measurements in a compact sand stone near Santa Rosa and in a limestone near Artesia, New Mexico, gave excellent results. Overall, the NMR technique proves capable of detecting subsurface ground water under the right conditions: little noise from power lines and absence of magnetite.
Fractured bedrock aquifers have traditionally been regarded as low-productivity aquifers, with only limited relevance to regional groundwater resources. It is now being increasingly recognised that these complex bedrock aquifers can play an important role in catchment management and subsurface energy systems. At shallow to intermediate depth, fractured bedrock aquifers help to sustain surface water baseflows and groundwater dependent ecosystems, provide local groundwater supplies and impact on contaminant transfers on a catchment scale. At greater depths, understanding the properties and groundwater flow regimes of these complex aquifers can be crucial for the successful installation of subsurface energy and storage systems, such as deep geothermal or Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage systems and natural gas or CO2 storage facilities as well as the exploration of natural resources such as conventional/unconventional oil and gas. In many scenarios, a robust understanding of fractured bedrock aquifers is required to assess the nature and extent of connectivity between such engineered subsurface systems at depth and overlying receptors in the shallow subsurface.
Treatise on Geophysics, Second Edition, is a comprehensive and in-depth study of the physics of the Earth beyond what any geophysics text has provided previously. Thoroughly revised and updated, it provides fundamental and state-of-the-art discussion of all aspects of geophysics. A highlight of the second edition is a new volume on Near Surface Geophysics that discusses the role of geophysics in the exploitation and conservation of natural resources and the assessment of degradation of natural systems by pollution. Additional features include new material in the Planets and Moon, Mantle Dynamics, Core Dynamics, Crustal and Lithosphere Dynamics, Evolution of the Earth, and Geodesy volumes. New material is also presented on the uses of Earth gravity measurements. This title is essential for professionals, researchers, professors, and advanced undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of Geophysics and Earth system science. Comprehensive and detailed coverage of all aspects of geophysics Fundamental and state-of-the-art discussions of all research topics Integration of topics into a coherent whole
Groundwater management and conservation becomes a more and more important issue in the heavily urbanized coastal zones of the Asia-Pacific region. This volume presents a comprehensive overview of the status of coastal groundwater research in this diverse region. It includes latest methodologies and technologies to assess processes associated with coastal groundwater development. Case studies and local examples from a broad geographical range of continental shoreline and island settings give an understanding of the diversity of coastal aquifers and the groundwater recourses they harbour. Audience: By providing a clearer understanding of the hydrogeological and hydrochemical processes, this volume offers a critical tool to coastal researchers, geoscientists in related fields, water engineers, groundwater managers and decision makers as it illustrates the human and environmental impacts on coastal groundwater resources and the relationship to coastal zone management strategies and the development of sustainable management approaches.
As a spectroscopic method, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has seen spectacular growth, both as a technique and in its applications. Today's applications of NMR span a wide range of scientific disciplines, from physics to biology to medicine. Each volume of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance comprises a combination of annual and biennial reports which together provide comprehensive coverage of the literature on this topic. This Specialist Periodical Report reflects the growing volume of published work involving NMR techniques and applications, in particular NMR of natural macromolecules, which is covered in two reports: NMR of Proteins and Nucleic Acids and NMR of Carbohydrates, Lipids and Membranes. For those wanting to become rapidly aquainted with specific areas of NMR, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance provides unrivalled scope of coverage. Seasoned practitioners of NMR will find this an invaluable source of current methods and applications.
This book presents a collection of essays that address various facets of the hydrogeology of Israel. Despite its small geographic size, Israel exhibits a variety of climates and is located between two regional fluctuating base levels. The respective chapters discuss the variety of hydrogeological configurations and hydrological processes produced by these geographical circumstances. In some cases, the interpretation of these aspects is deliberately left open to debate, because the authors were asked to provide, in addition to their own views, also alternative and even conflicting ones. Hydrogeological configurations similar to those in Israel can be found in other countries around the world. Therefore, researchers, scholars and professionals in this interdisciplinary field can benefit from and directly apply the considerable experience and expertise that has been gathered in Israel over the past few decades.
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category: Business & Economics
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program is one of the largest examples of U.S. public-private partnerships, and was established in 1982 to encourage small businesses to develop new processes and products and to provide quality research in support of the U.S. government's many missions. The Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) Program was created in 1992 by the Small Business Research and Development Enhancement Act to expand joint venture opportunities for small businesses and nonprofit research institutions by requiring small business recipients to collaborate formally with a research institution. The U.S. Congress tasked the National Research Council with undertaking a comprehensive study of how the SBIR and STTR programs have stimulated technological innovation and used small businesses to meet federal research and development needs, and with recommending further improvements to the programs. In the first round of this study, an ad hoc committee prepared a series of reports from 2004 to 2009 on the SBIR and STTR programs at the five agencies responsible for 96 percent of the programs' operations-including the Department of Energy (DoE). Building on the outcomes from the first round, this second round presents the committee's second review of the DoE SBIR program's operations. Public-private partnerships like SBIR and STTR are particularly important since today's knowledge economy is driven in large part by the nation's capacity to innovate. One of the defining features of the U.S. economy is a high level of entrepreneurial activity. Entrepreneurs in the United States see opportunities and are willing and able to assume risk to bring new welfare-enhancing, wealth-generating technologies to the market. Yet, although discoveries in areas such as genomics, bioinformatics, and nanotechnology present new opportunities, converting these discoveries into innovations for the market involves substantial challenges. The American capacity for innovation can be strengthened by addressing the challenges faced by entrepreneurs.
Coupling the basics of hygrogeology with analytical and numerical modeling methods, Hydrogeology and Groundwater Modeling, Second Edition provides detailed coverage of both theory and practice. Written by a leading hydrogeologist who has consulted for industry and environmental agencies and taught at major universities around the world, this unique book fills a gap in the groundwater hydrogeology literature. With more than 40 real-world examples, the book is a source for clear, easy-to-understand, and step-by-step quantitative groundwater evaluation and contaminant fate and transport analysis, from basic laboratory determination to complex analytical calculations and computer modeling. It provides more than 400 drawings, graphs, and photographs, and a variety of useful tables of all key groundwater parameters, as well as lucid, straightforward answers to common hydrogeological problems. Reflecting nearly ten years of new scholarship since the publication of the bestselling first edition, this second edition is wider in focus with added and updated examples, figures, and problems, yet still provides information in the author's trademark, user-friendly style. No other book offers such carefully selected examples and clear, elegantly explained solutions. The inclusion of step-by-step solutions to real problems builds a knowledge base for understanding and solving groundwater issues.
The 2016 International Conference on Advances in Energy and Environment Research (ICAEER 2016) took place on August 12-14, 2016 in Guangzhou, China. ICAEER 2016 has been a meeting place for innovative academics and industrial experts in the field of energy and environment research. The primary goal of the conference is to promote research and developmental activities in energy and environment research and further to promote scientific information exchange between researchers, developers, engineers, students, and practitioners working all around the world. The conference will be organized every year making it an ideal platform for people to share views and experiences in energy and environment research and related areas. ICAEER 2016 is dedicated to presenting and publishing novel and fundamental advances in energy and environment research fields. Scholars and specialists on ICAEER 2016, originating from over 10 countries or regions, have shared their knowledge and interesting research results. During the conference, an international stage was prepared for the participants to present their theoretical studies and practical applications.