Roots represent half of the plant body – and arguably the more interesting half. Despite its obvious importance for the whole plant, until recently our knowledge of the root apparatus was very limited, mostly due to the inadequacy of the techniques available. Recent advances in the visualization and measurement of roots have resulted in significant progress in our understanding of root architecture, growth and behaviour. In this book international experts highlight the most advanced techniques, both lab and field methods, and discuss them in detail. Measuring Roots combines academic and practical aspects of this topic, making it a universal handbook for all researchers and others interested in root-measuring methods.
Terrestrial Ecosystem Research Infrastructures: Challenges and Opportunities reveals how environmental research infrastructures (RIs) provide new valuable insights on ecological processes that cannot be realized by more traditional short-term funding cycles and are integral to understand our changing world. This book bonds the latest state-of-the-science knowledge on environmental RIs, the challenges in creating them, their place in addressing scientific frontiers, and the new perspectives they bear. Each chapter is thoughtfully invested with fresh viewpoints from the environmental RI vantage as the authors explore and explain many topics such as the rationale and challenges in global change, field and modeling platforms, new tools, challenges in data management, distilling information into knowledge, and new developments in large-scale RIs. This work serves an advantageous guide for academics and practitioners alike who aim to deepen their knowledge in the field of science and project management, and logistics operations.
This book contains the majority of the presentations of the Second International Symposium on the Biology of Root Formation and Development that was hcld in Jerusa lem, Israel, June 23---28, 1996. Following the First Symposium on the Biology of Adventi tious Root Formation, held in Dallas. USA, 1993, we perceived the need to include all kinds of roots, not only the shoot-borne ones. The endogenous signals that control root formation. and the subsequent growth and development processes, are very much alike, re gardless of the sites and sources of origin of the roots. Therefore, we included in the Sec ond Symposium contributions on both shoot-borne (i.e., adventitious) roots and root-borne (i.e., lateral) roots. Plant roots have remained an exciting and an intriguing field of sciencc. During thc years that followed the first symposium, an exceptional proliferation of interest in root biology has developed, associated with the intensive research activity in this field and the contemporary developments in the understanding of root function and development. New methods have been applied, and old ideas and interprctations werc rccxamined. Alto gether, it became necessary to update our viewpoints and to expand them.
This book is the outcome of global dedication for researches at physiological and molecular levels that substantially deals with challenges of ongoing international concern over the abiotic stress research, which as the major environmental factors affects plant growth-development. On the other hand, this book also highlights focused researches of significance on image-based plant phenotyping; phenomics and its application in physiological breeding; trace elements; plant functions; physiological basis of yield variation; medicinal and aromatic plants and so on. The aim is to make stronger the distinctive outcome of conscientious research in some of the very sensitive areas of Plant Physiology-Plant Molecular Physiology/ Molecular Biology that broadly highlights the recent developments and mechanisms underlying plant resilience to changing environments. This book brings collectively much needed twenty-one review articles commendably dealing with challenges of ongoing international concern over the abiotic stresses under changing climate besides vital aspects related to image-based plant phenotyping; phenomics and its application in physiological breeding; trace elements; plant functions; physiological basis of yield variation; medicinal and aromatic plants and so on. Apart from fulfilling the acute need of this kind of select theme by research teams and scientists engaged in various facets of plant sciences research in traditional and agricultural universities, institutes and research laboratories throughout the world, it would be extremely a constructive book for acquiring advanced knowledge by post-graduate and Ph.D. scholars in response to the innovative courses in Plant Physiology, Plant Biochemistry, Plant Molecular Physiology, Plant Biotechnology, Environmental Sciences, Plant Pathology, Microbiology, Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry, Agronomy, Horticulture, and Botany.
Biological diversity, the variety of living organisms on Earth, is traditionally viewed as the diversity of taxa, and species in particular. However, other facets of diversity also need to be considered for a comprehensive understanding of evolutionary and ecological processes. This novel book demonstrates the advantages of adopting a functional approach to diversity in order to improve our understanding of the functioning of ecological systems and their components. The focus is on plants, which are major components of these systems, and for which the functional approach has led to major scientific advances over the last 20 years. Plant Functional Diversity presents the rationale for a trait-based approach to functional diversity in the context of comparative plant ecology and agroecology. It demonstrates how this approach can be used to address a number of highly debated questions in plant ecology pertaining to plant responses to their environment, controls on plant community structure, ecosystem properties, and the services these deliver to human societies. This research level text will be of particular relevance and use to graduate students and professional researchers in plant ecology, agricultural sciences and conservation biology.
Weeds severely affect crop quality and yield. Therefore, successful farming relies on their control by coordinated management approaches. Among these, chemical herbicides are of key importance. Their development and commercialization began in the 1940's and they allowed for a qualitative increase in crop yield and quality when it was most needed. This book blends review chapters with scientific studies, creating an overview of some the current trends in the field of herbicides. Included are environmental studies on their toxicity and impact on natural populations, methods to reduce herbicide inputs and therefore overall non-target toxicity, and the use of bioherbicides as natural alternatives.
Consistently rated as the best overall introduction to computer-based image processing, The Image Processing Handbook covers two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques, image printing and storage methods, image processing algorithms, image and feature measurement, quantitative image measurement analysis, and more. Incorporating image processing and analysis examples at all scales, from nano- to astro-, this Seventh Edition: Features a greater range of computationally intensive algorithms than previous versions Provides better organization, more quantitative results, and new material on recent developments Includes completely rewritten chapters on 3D imaging and a thoroughly revamped chapter on statistical analysis Contains more than 1700 references to theory, methods, and applications in a wide variety of disciplines Presents 500+ entirely new figures and images, with more than two-thirds appearing in color The Image Processing Handbook, Seventh Edition delivers an accessible and up-to-date treatment of image processing, offering broad coverage and comparison of algorithms, approaches, and outcomes.