The first comprehensive monograph on periphyton, this book contains contributions by scientists fromaround the globe. Multi-disciplinary in nature, it covers both basic and applied aspects of periphyton,and is applicable worldwide in natural, extensive and intensive managed systems.Periphyton, as described in this book, refers to the entire complex of attached aquatic biota on submergedsubstrates, including associated non-attached organisms and detritus. Thus the periphyton communitycomprises bacteria, fungi, protozoa, algae, zooplankton and other invertebrates. Periphyton is importantfor various reasons: as a major contributor to carbon fixation and nutrient cycling in aquatic ecosystems;as an important source of food in aquatic systems; as an indicator of environmental change. It can alsobe managed to improve water quality in lakes and reservoirs; it can greatly increase aquaculture production;it can be used in waste water treatment.The book provides an international review of periphyton ecology, exploitation and management. Theecology part focuses on periphyton structure and function in natural systems. The exploitation part coversits nutritive qualities and utilization by organisms, particularly in aquaculture. The final part considersthe use of periphyton for increasing aquatic production and its effects on water quality and animal healthin culture systems. This book will help scientists and entrepreneurs further understand the ecology andproduction of aquatic systems and venture into new and promising areas.
Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic increase in theoretical and practical studies on insect natural enemies. This considerably updated and expanded version of a previous best-seller is an account of major aspects of the biology of predators and parasitoids, punctuated with information and advice on which experiments or observations to conduct, and how to carry them out. It emphasizes practicalities and also provides guidance on further literature.
Over the past three decades there has been a dramatic increase in theoretical and practical studies on insect natural enemies. The appeal of insect predators, and parasitoids in particular, as research animals derives from the relative ease with which many species may be cultured and experimented with in the laboratory, the simple life cycles of most parasitoids, and the increasing demand for biological pest control. There is now a massive literature on insect natural enemies, so there is a great need for a general text that the enquiring student or research worker can use in deciding on approaches and techniques that are appropriate to the study and evaluation of such insects. This book fulfils that demand. A considerably updated and expanded version of a previous best-seller, it is an account of major aspects of the biology of predators and parasitoids, punctuated with information and advice on which experiments or observations to conduct, and how to carry them out. Guidance is provided, where necessary, on the literature that may need to be consulted on particular topics. While researchers can now refer to several books on parasitoids and predators, Insects as Natural Enemies is unique in emphasising practicalities. It is aimed at students and professional working in universities and both government and commercial institutes in the fields of pest management, agriculture, horticulture and forestry.
Parasitoids lay their eggs on or in the bodies of other species of insect, and the parasitoid larvae develop by feeding on the host, causing its eventual death. Known for a long time to applied biologists for their importance in regulating the population densities of economic pests, parasitoids have recently proven to be valuable tools in testing many aspects of evolutionary theory. This book synthesizes the work of both schools of parasitoid biology and asks how a consideration of evolutionary biology can help us understand the behavior, ecology, and diversity of the approximately one to two million species of parasitoid found on earth. After a general introduction to parasitoid natural history and taxonomy, the first part of the book treats the different components of the reproductive strategy of parasitoids: searching for a host, host selection, clutch size, and the sex ratio. Subsequent chapters discuss pathogens and non-Mendelian genetic elements that affect sexual reproduction; evolutionary aspects of the physiological interactions between parasitoid and host; mating strategies; life history theory and community ecology. A special effort is made to discuss the theoretical background to the subject, but without the use of mathematics.