Released on 2019-09-02Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

Null Subjects in Englishes

Null Subjects in Englishes

Author: Verena Schröter

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110645354

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 310

View: 416

This book presents the first systematic quantitative study of null subjects not only in British English, but also in the contact varieties Indian, Hong Kong and Singapore English. Analysing informal spoken language, it addresses issues relevant for language contact and World Englishes, corpus linguistics and variationist sociolinguistics, linguistic typology and syntax.
Released on 2019-09-02Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

Null Subjects in Englishes

Null Subjects in Englishes

Author: Verena Schröter

Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG

ISBN: 9783110649260

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 310

View: 496

This book presents the first systematic quantitative study of null subjects not only in British English, but also in the contact varieties Indian, Hong Kong and Singapore English. Analysing informal spoken language, it addresses issues relevant for language contact and World Englishes, corpus linguistics and variationist sociolinguistics, linguistic typology and syntax.
Released on 2018-12-06Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

Referential Null Subjects in Early English

Referential Null Subjects in Early English

Author: Kristian A. Rusten

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192535764

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 288

View: 732

This book offers a large-scale quantitative investigation of referential null subjects as they occur in Old, Middle, and Early Modern English. Using corpus linguistic methods, and drawing on five corpora of early English, it empirically examines the occurrence of subjectless finite clauses in more than 500 early English texts, spanning nearly 850 years. On the basis of this substantial data, Kristian A. Rusten re-evaluates previous conflicting claims concerning the occurrence and distribution of null subjects in Old English. He explores the question of whether the earliest stage of English can be considered a canonical or partial pro-drop language, and provides an empirical examination of the role played by central licensors of null subjects proposed in the theoretical literature. The predictions of two important pragmatic accounts of null arguments are also tested. Throughout, the book builds its arguments primarily by means of powerful statistical tools, including generalized fixed-effects and mixed-effects logistic regression modelling. The volume is the most comprehensive examination of null subjects in the history of English to date, and will be of interest to syntacticians, historical linguists, and those working in English and Germanic linguistics more widely.
Released on 2020-02-15Categories

Unexpressed Subjects in English

Unexpressed Subjects in English

Author: Amy M Lindstrom

Publisher:

ISBN: 9781793604620

Category:

Page: 156

View: 298

Unexpressed Subjects in English: An Empirical Analysis of Narrative and Conversational Discourse challenges previous assumptions of what is grammatically possible in English through an examination of contexts in which speakers omit subjects, demonstrating how language structure is influenced by communicative needs. Through corpus-based analysis of both interactive conversations and monologic narratives, Amy M. Lindstrom reveals how the discourse/pragmatic factors of accessibility and chronological ordering, the prosodic effect of linking, and the mechanical effect of priming intersect to provide a rigorous account of subject (un)expression in spoken American English. Higher degrees of linking, cohesion, and connection lead to more unexpressed subjects. Lindstrom also analyzes frequent constructions with unexpressed subjects vis-à-vis paths of grammaticalization. The author presents a measurement of discourse connectedness that shows how the intersection of prosody and pragmatics illustrates the powerful effect of spontaneous discourse in shaping grammar. This study adds to our understanding of language and cognition by contributing to our knowledge of the conceptualization, categorization, and representation of experience and memory.
Released on 2004-04-15Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

English Syntax

English Syntax

Author: Andrew Radford

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521542758

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 384

View: 133

This textbook--an abridged version of Radford's Minimalist Syntax and the Syntax of English--provides a concise and accessible introduction to current syntactic theory, drawing on the key concepts of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme. Assuming little or no prior grammatical knowledge, it takes students through a range of topics in English syntax, beginning at an elementary level and progressing in stages towards more advanced material. There is an extensive glossary, and each chapter contains a workbook section with 'helpful hints', exercises and model answers, suitable for both class discussion and self-study.
Released on 2017-01-26Categories

The Unlearning of Null Subjects in Cantonese Speaking Learners of English

The Unlearning of Null Subjects in Cantonese Speaking Learners of English

Author: James Strang

Publisher: Open Dissertation Press

ISBN: 1361210761

Category:

Page:

View: 404

This dissertation, "The Unlearning of Null Subjects in Cantonese Speaking Learners of English" by James, Strang, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: The Unlearning of Null Subjects in Cantonese Speaking Learners of English. James Strang Abstract. This dissertation examines the factors involved in the resetting of the null subject parameter of Cantonese speaking learners of English. It shows how null subject transfer differs between topic oriented languages such as Cantonese and pro-drop languages like Spanish. It then explores the evidence for triggers that has been suggested in studies of the null subject parameter in other topic oriented languages by Wakabayashi (2002), Yang (1998), Park (2004) and Yuan (1997). The problems that arise from the conflicting results of these studies are then compared to the results of my own study of four Cantonese speaking young learners of English, aged eight, nine, ten and eleven, whose oral language was recorded over a six week period and studied for the production of null subjects and possible triggers. The paper surprisingly 1concludes that unlike the previous studies, there is no evidence of parametric resetting but rather a non null subject parameter is acquired in a similar way to that proposed by Valian's 1991 study of first language non null subject acquisition. I suggest that the findings can be accounted for by the age difference of the participants in the different studies. I then discuss the implications of this and a number of questions that remain unaddressed by this study. 2 DOI: 10.5353/th_b3165349 Subjects: English language - Syntax English language - Study and teaching - Cantonese speakers
Released on 1994-01-01Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

Universal Grammar in Child Second Language Acquisition

Universal Grammar in Child Second Language Acquisition

Author: Usha Lakshmanan

Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing

ISBN: 9789027224750

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 162

View: 167

This book examines child second language acquisition within the Principles and Parameters theory of Universal Grammar (UG). Specifically, the book focuses on null-subjects in the developing grammars of children acquiring English as a second language. The book provides evidence from the longitudinal speech data of four child second language (L2) learners in order to test the predictions of a recent theory of null-subjects, namely, the Morphological Uniformity Principle (MUP). Lakshmanan argues that the child L2 acquisition data offer little or no evidence in support of the MUP s predictions regarding a developmental relation between verb inflections and null-subjects. The evidence from these child L2 data indicates that regardless of the status of null subjects in their first language, child L2 learners of English hypothesize correctly from the very beginning that English requires subjects of tensed clauses to be obligatorily overt. The failure on the part of these learners to obey this knowledge in certain structural contexts is the result of perceptual factors that are unrelated to parameter setting. The book demonstrates the value of child second language acquisition data in evaluating specific proposals within linguistic theory for a Universal principle.
Released on 2010-01Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

Parametric Variation

Parametric Variation

Author: Theresa Biberauer

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521886956

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 368

View: 176

Parametric variation in linguistic theory refers to the systematic grammatical variation permitted by the human language faculty. This book is a defence of the parametric approach to linguistic variation, set within the framework of the Minimalist Program.
Released on 2018-04-19Categories Language Arts & Disciplines

Null Subjects in Generative Grammar

Null Subjects in Generative Grammar

Author: Federica Cognola

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780192547880

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 336

View: 966

This book considers the null-subject phenomenon, whereby some languages lack an overtly realized referential subject in specific contexts. In generative syntax-the approach adopted in this volume-the phenomenon has traditionally been explained in terms of a 'pro-drop' parameter with associated cluster properties; more recently, however, it has become clear that pro-drop phenomena do not always correlate with all the initially predicted cluster properties. This volume returns to the centre of the debate surrounding the empirical phenomena associated with null subjects. Experts in the field explore the cluster properties associated with pro-drop; the types of null category involved in null-subject phenomena and their identification; and the typology of null-subject languages, with a special focus on partial null-subject languages. Chapters include both novel empirical data and new theoretical analyses covering the major approaches to null subjects in generative grammar. A wide range of languages are examined, ranging from the most commonly studied in research into null subjects, such as Finnish and Italian, to lesser-studied languages such as Vietnamese and Polish, minority languages such as Cimbrian and Kashubian, and historical varieties such as Old French and Old High German. The research presented also contributes to the understanding of other key syntactic phenomena, such as the nature of control, the role of information structure and semantics in syntax, the mechanisms of language change, and the formalization of language variation. The breadth and depth of the volume will make it a valuable resource not only for generative syntacticians, but also for all those working in the fields of historical linguistics, typology, comparative grammar, semantics, and theoretical and descriptive linguistics more generally.
Released on 2010-02-25Categories

An Introduction to English Sentence Structure International Student Edition

An Introduction to English Sentence Structure International Student Edition

Author: Andrew Radford

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9780521157308

Category:

Page: 466

View: 296

This outstanding resource for students offers a step-by-step, practical introduction to English syntax and syntactic principles, as developed by Chomsky over the past 15 years. Assuming little or no prior background in syntax, Andrew Radford outlines the core concepts and how they can be used to describe various aspects of English sentence structure. This is an abridged version of Radford's major new textbook Analysing English Sentences (also published by Cambridge University Press), and will be welcomed as a handy introduction to current syntactic theory.