Released on 2009-12-23Categories Science

Polar Microbiology

Polar Microbiology

Author: Asim K. Bej

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 1420083880

Category: Science

Page: 424

View: 948

Pollution has accompanied polar exploration since Captain John Davis’ arrival on the Antarctic continent in 1821 and has become an unavoidable consequence of oil spills in our polar regions. Fortunately, many of the organisms indigenous to Polar ecosystems have the ability to degrade pollutants. It is this metabolic capacity that forms the basis for bioremediation as a potential treatment for the hydrocarbons that contaminate the pristine polar environments. The only book to cover the breadth of microbial ecology and diversity in polar regions with an emphasis on bioremediation, Polar Microbiology: The Ecology, Biodiversity, and Bioremediation Potential of Microorganisms in Extremely Cold Environments examines the diversity of polar microorganisms and their ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbon contaminants in polar terrestrial and aquatic environments. Providing a unique perspective of these microorganisms in extremely cold temperatures, the book focuses on their taxonomy, physiology, biochemistry, population structure, bioremediation potential, and potential for biotechnology applications. Leading investigators in the field provide complete coverage of the microbiology relevant to the study of biodiversity and biodegradation of pollutants in the Arctic and Antarctic, including: Microbial extremophiles living in cold and subzero temperature environments Genetics and physiology of cold adaptation of microorganisms Biodegradative microbial consortia in a defined closed environment Molecular characterization of biodegradative microbial populations Molecular approaches to assess biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons Environmental impact of hydrocarbon contamination Microbial biodiversity across Antarctic deserts By bringing together the current state of scientific knowledge and research on microbial community structures in extremely cold temperatures, this thought provoking resource is the ideal starting point for the research that must be done if we are to effectively reduce human’s eco-footprint on our polar regions.
Released on 2011-12-29Categories Science

Polar Microbiology

Polar Microbiology

Author: Robert V. Miller

Publisher: American Society for Microbiology Press

ISBN: 9781555816049

Category: Science

Page: 334

View: 574

Sheds new light on the microbial ecology and physiology of the Earth’s polar regions. • Examines the microbial investigations during the International Polar Year of 2008 focusing on the Arctic and Antarctic, along with earlier investigations on critical environmental issues such as climate change, ozone depletion, and elemental cycling. • Offers a survey of what is known and unknown about the microbial inhabitants of polar environments, addresses the adaptations and physiology of cold-adapted microorganisms, and explores the ecological role that polar microbial communities play in biogeochemical cycling. • Presents the challenges that polar and subpolar microorganisms face and describes the lowest temperatures in which microbial life can exist—and the prospects for life on other planets. Recommended for a general microbiology audience as well as for scientists and students in all areas of biology and geomicrobiology.
Released on 2018-07-05Categories

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments

Author: Julie Dinasquet

Publisher: Frontiers Media SA

ISBN: 9782889455133

Category:

Page:

View: 928

Marine and freshwater polar environments are characterized by intense physical forces and strong seasonal variations. The persistent cold and sometimes inhospitable conditions create unique ecosystems and habitats for microbial life. Polar microbial communities are diverse productive assemblages, which drive biogeochemical cycles and support higher food-webs across the Arctic and over much of the Antarctic. Recent studies on the biogeography of microbial species have revealed phylogenetically diverse polar ecotypes, suggesting adaptation to seasonal darkness, sea-ice coverage and high summer irradiance. Because of the diversity of habitats related to atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and the formation and melting of ice, high latitude oceans and lakes are ideal environments to investigate composition and functionality of microbial communities. In addition, polar regions are responding more dramatically to climate change compared to temperate environments and there is an urgent need to identify sensitive indicators of ecosystem history, that may be sentinels for change or adaptation. For instance, Antarctic lakes provide useful model systems to study microbial evolution and climate history. Hence, it becomes essential and timely to better understand factors controlling the microbes, and how, in turn, they may affect the functioning of these fragile ecosystems. Polar microbiology is an expanding field of research with exciting possibilities to provide new insights into microbial ecology and evolution. With this Research Topic we seek to bring together polar microbiologists studying different aquatic systems and components of the microbial food web, to stimulate discussion and reflect on these sensitive environments in a changing world perspective.
Released on 2014-07-08Categories Science

Antarctic Terrestrial Microbiology

Antarctic Terrestrial Microbiology

Author: Don A. Cowan

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783642452130

Category: Science

Page: 328

View: 806

This book brings together many of the world’s leading experts in the fields of Antarctic terrestrial soil ecology, providing a comprehensive and completely up-to-date analysis of the status of Antarctic soil microbiology. Antarctic terrestrial soils represent one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Once thought to be largely sterile, it is now known that these diverse and often specialized extreme habitats harbor a very wide range of different microorganisms. Antarctic soil communities are relatively simple, but not unsophisticated. Recent phylogenetic and microscopic studies have demonstrated that these communities have well established trophic structuring and play a significant role in nutrient cycling in these cold and often dry desert ecosystems. They are surprisingly responsive to change and potentially sensitive to climatic perturbation. Antarctic terrestrial soils also harbor specialized ‘refuge’habitats, where microbial communities develop under (and within) translucent rocks. These cryptic habitats offer unique models for understanding the physical and biological ‘drivers’ of community development, function and evolution.
Released on 2019-04-23Categories Nature

Fungi in Polar Regions

Fungi in Polar Regions

Author: Masaharu Tsuji

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351611992

Category: Nature

Page: 140

View: 112

Fungi that inhabit polar-region can grow and decompose organic compounds under subzero temperatures play important roles in the nutrient cycle of polar-region ecosystems. Thus, changes in the mycoflora affect the ecological recycling in these regions, and understanding the cold-adaptation strategies of fungi under extreme environments is critical for a better understanding of polar-region ecosystems. Due to their ability to survive under extreme environments, fungi in polar-region are seen to show potential for utilization in biotechnologies. This book presents our current understanding of the mycoflora in polar-region and their cold adaptation strategies, and applied studies using their abilities.
Released on 2008-09-11Categories Nature

Polar Lakes and Rivers

Polar Lakes and Rivers

Author: Warwick F. Vincent

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199213887

Category: Nature

Page: 327

View: 551

This book provides an overview of the ecology of high latitude lakes, rivers and glacial environments in both the North and South polar regions. It describes each ecosystem type, the remarkable aquatic life that thrives in these extreme habitats, and the similarities and differences between Arctic and Antarctic waters.
Released on 2014-08-01Categories Science

Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment

Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment

Author: National Research Council

Publisher: National Academies Press

ISBN: 9780309298896

Category: Science

Page: 210

View: 320

U.S. Arctic waters north of the Bering Strait and west of the Canadian border encompass a vast area that is usually ice covered for much of the year, but is increasingly experiencing longer periods and larger areas of open water due to climate change. Sparsely inhabited with a wide variety of ecosystems found nowhere else, this region is vulnerable to damage from human activities. As oil and gas, shipping, and tourism activities increase, the possibilities of an oil spill also increase. How can we best prepare to respond to such an event in this challenging environment? Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment reviews the current state of the science regarding oil spill response and environmental assessment in the Arctic region north of the Bering Strait, with emphasis on the potential impacts in U.S. waters. This report describes the unique ecosystems and environment of the Arctic and makes recommendations to provide an effective response effort in these challenging conditions. According to Responding to Oil Spills in the U.S. Arctic Marine Environment, a full range of proven oil spill response technologies is needed in order to minimize the impacts on people and sensitive ecosystems. This report identifies key oil spill research priorities, critical data and monitoring needs, mitigation strategies, and important operational and logistical issues. The Arctic acts as an integrating, regulating, and mediating component of the physical, atmospheric and cryospheric systems that govern life on Earth. Not only does the Arctic serve as regulator of many of the Earth's large-scale systems and processes, but it is also an area where choices made have substantial impact on life and choices everywhere on planet Earth. This report's recommendations will assist environmentalists, industry, state and local policymakers, and anyone interested in the future of this special region to preserve and protect it from damaging oil spills.
Released on 2019-01-11Categories Science

The Ecological Role of Micro-organisms in the Antarctic Environment

The Ecological Role of Micro-organisms in the Antarctic Environment

Author: Susana Castro-Sowinski

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783030027865

Category: Science

Page: 298

View: 684

This book provides up-to-date multidisciplinary information regarding microbial physiological groups in terms of their role in the Antarctic ecology. How do microorganisms shape the Antarctic environment? The book presents a thorough overview of the most important physiological microbial groups or microbial systems that shape the Antarctic environment. Each microbial model is described in terms of their physiology and metabolism, and their role in the Antarctic environmental sustainability. The individual chapters prepare readers for understanding the relevance of the microbial models from both an historical perspective, and considering the latest developments. This book will appeal to researchers and teachers interested in the Antarctic science, but also to students who want to understand the role of microbes in the ecology of extreme environments.
Released on 2021-04-11Categories Science

Molecular Food Microbiology

Molecular Food Microbiology

Author: Dongyou Liu

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781351120371

Category: Science

Page: 464

View: 959

The elucidation of DNA double helix in 1953 and the publication of DNA cloning protocol in 1973 have put wings under the sail of molecular biology, which has since quietly revolutionized many fields of biological science, including food microbiology. Exploiting the power and versatility of molecular technologies, molecular food microbiology extends and greatly improves on phenotypically based food microbiology, leading to the development of better diagnostics for foodborne infections and intoxications, and contributing to the design of more effective therapeutics and prophylaxes against foodborne diseases. Forming part of the Food Microbiology series, Molecular Food Microbiology provides a state of art coverage on molecular techniques applicable to food microbiology. While the introductory chapter contains an overview on the principles of current DNA, RNA and protein techniques and discusses their utility in helping solve practical problems that food microbiology is facing now and in the future, the remaining chapters present detailed moleuclar analyses of selective foodborne viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites. Key Features: Contains a state of art overview on moleuclar techniques applicable to food microbiology research and development Presents in-depth molecular analysis of selective foodborne viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites Highlights the utility of molecular tecniques for accurate diagnosis and effective control of foodborne diseases Includes expert contributions from international scientists involved in molecular food microbiology research Represents a highly informative textbook for students majoring in food, medical, and veterinary microbiology Offers a contemporary reference for scholars and educators wishing to keep abreast with the latest developments in molecular food microbiology With contributions from international scientists involved in molecular food microbiology research, this book constitutes an informative textbook for undergraduates and postgraduates majoring in food, medical, and veterinary microbiology; represents an indispensable guide for food, medical, and veterinary scientists engaged in molecular food microbiology research and development; and offers a contemporary update for scholars and educators trying to keep in touch with the latest developments in molecular food microbiology.
Released on 2009-01Categories Medical

Current Research Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology

Current Research Topics in Applied Microbiology and Microbial Biotechnology

Author: Antonio Mendez-Vilas

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789812837547

Category: Medical

Page: 771

View: 229

This book contains a compilation of papers presented at the II International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology (BioMicroWorld2007) held in Seville, Spain on 28 November 1 December 2007, where over 550 researchers from about 60 countries attended and presented their cutting-edge research. The main goals of this book are to: (1) identify new approaches and research opportunities in applied microbiology, presenting works that link microbiology with research areas usually related to other scientific and engineering disciplines; and (2) communicate current research priorities and progress in the field. The contents of this book mirror this focus. Microbiologists interested in environmental, industrial and applied microbiology and, in general, scientists whose research fields are related to applied microbiology can find an overview of the current state of the art in the topic. In addition to the more general topic, some chapters are devoted to specific branches of microbiology research, such as bioremediation; biosurfactants; microbial factories; biotechnologically relevant enzymes and proteins; microbial physiology, metabolism and gene expression; and future bioindustries.
Released on 2018-01-09Categories Medical

Extremophiles

Extremophiles

Author: Ravi V. Durvasula

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9781498774932

Category: Medical

Page: 399

View: 515

Highly recommended by CHOICE, Oct 2018 Extremophiles are nature’s ultimate survivors, thriving in environments ranging from the frozen Antarctic to abyssal hot hydrothermal vents. Their lifeforms span bacteria to fishes, and are categorized as halophiles from hypersaline environments, acidophiles from acidic waters, psychrophiles from cold habitats, and thermophiles from warm waters. Extremophiles: From Biology to Biotechnology comprehensively covers the basic biology, physiology, habitats, secondary metabolites for bioprospecting, and biotechnology of these extreme survivors. The chapters focus on the novel genetic and biochemical traits that lend these organisms to biotechnological applications. Couples studies of marine extremophile biology/genomics and extremophile culture for biotechnological applications with the latest advances in bio-prospecting and bio-product development Includes practical experiments that a laboratory can use to replicate extreme habitats for research purposes Presents latest advances in extremophile genomics to give the reader a better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of extremophiles Offers insights into the production of commercially important extremozymes, carotenoids, bioactive compounds and secondary metabolites of medicinal value. This unique guide serves as a resource for biotechnologists who wish to explore extremophiles for their commercial potential, as well as a valuable reference for teaching undergraduate, graduate and postgraduate students.