Combined cycle technology is used to generate power at one of the highest levels of efficiency of conventional power plants. It does this through primary generation from a gas turbine coupled with secondary generation from a steam turbine powered by primary exhaust heat. Generating power at high efficiency thoroughly charts the development and implementation of this technology in power plants and looks to the future of the technology, noting the advantages of the most important technical features – including gas turbines, steam generator, combined heat and power and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) – with their latest applications. Reviews key developments in combined cycle technology Uses examples drawn from plants around the world Looks at how combined cycle technology can evolve to meet future energy needs
The history of information and communications technologies (ICT) has been paved by both evolutive paths and challenging alternatives, so-called emerging devices and architectures. Their introduction poses the issues of state variable definition, information processing, and process integration in 2D, above IC, and in 3D. This book reviews the capabilities of integrated nanosystems to match low power and high performance either by hybrid and heterogeneous CMOS in 2D/3D or by emerging devices for alternative sensing, actuating, data storage, and processing. The choice of future ICTs will need to take into account not only their energy efficiency but also their sustainability in the global ecosystem.
Following in the footsteps of its popular predecessors, High Power Microwaves, Third Edition continues to provide a wide-angle, integrated view of the field of high power microwaves (HPMs). This third edition includes significant updates in every chapter as well as a new chapter on beamless systems that covers nonlinear transmission lines. Written by an experimentalist, a theorist, and an applied theorist, respectively, the book offers complementary perspectives on different source types. The authors address: How HPM relates historically and technically to the conventional microwave field The possible applications for HPM and the key criteria that HPM devices have to meet in order to be applied How high power sources work, including their performance capabilities and limitations The broad fundamental issues to be addressed in the future for a wide variety of source types The book is accessible to several audiences. Researchers currently in the field can widen their understanding of HPM. Present or potential users of microwaves will discover the advantages of the dramatically higher power levels that are being made available. Newcomers to the field can pursue further research. Decision makers in direct energy acquisition and related fields, such as radar, communications, and high energy physics, can see how developments in HPM will affect them.
Distributing power in high speed, high complexity integrated circuits has become a challenging task as power levels exceeding tens of watts have become commonplace while the power supply is plunging toward one volt. This book is dedicated to this important subject. The primary purpose of this monograph is to provide insight and intuition into the behavior and design of power distribution systems for high speed, high complexity integrated circuits.
This book offers a tutorial on the response of materials to lasers, with an emphasis on simple, intuitive models with analytical and mathematical solutions, using techniques such as Laplace Transformation to solve most complex heat conduction equations. It examines the relationship between existing thermal parameters of simple metals and looks at the characteristics of materials and their properties in order to investigate and perform theoretical analysis from a heat conduction perspective mathematically. Topics discussed include optical reflectivity of metals at infrared (IR) wavelengths, laser-induced heat flow in materials, the effects of melting and vaporization, the impulse generated in materials by pulsed radiation, and the influence of the absorption in the blow-off region in irradiated material. Written for engineers, scientists, and graduate-level engineering and physics students, Thermal Effects of High Power Laser Energy on Materials provides an in-depth look at high energy laser technology and its potential industrial and commercial applications in such areas as precision cutting, LIDAR and LADAR, and communications. The knowledge gained from this allows you to apply spaced-based relay mirror in order to compensate laser beam divergence back to its original coherency by preventing further thermal blooming that takes place during laser beam propagation through the atmosphere. Examines the state-of-the-art in currently available high energy laser technologies; Includes computer codes that deal with the response of materials to laser radiation; Provides detailed mathematical solutions of thermal response to laser radiation.
This book demonstrates to readers why Gallium Nitride (GaN) transistors have a superior performance as compared to the already mature Silicon technology. The new GaN-based transistors here described enable both high frequency and high efficiency power conversion, leading to smaller and more efficient power systems. Coverage includes i) GaN substrates and device physics; ii) innovative GaN -transistors structure (lateral and vertical); iii) reliability and robustness of GaN-power transistors; iv) impact of parasitic on GaN based power conversion, v) new power converter architectures and vi) GaN in switched mode power conversion. Provides single-source reference to Gallium Nitride (GaN)-based technologies, from the material level to circuit level, both for power conversions architectures and switched mode power amplifiers; Demonstrates how GaN is a superior technology for switching devices, enabling both high frequency, high efficiency and lower cost power conversion; Enables design of smaller, cheaper and more efficient power supplies.
This book introduces power amplifier design in 22nm FDSOI CMOS dedicated towards 5G applications at 28 GHz and presents 4 state-of-the-art power amplifier designs. The authors discuss power amplifier performance metrics, design trade-offs, and presents different power amplifier classes utilizing efficiency enhancement techniques at 28 GHz. The book presents the design process from theory, simulation, layout, and finally measurement results.
This book is based on the 18 tutorials presented during the 28th workshop on Advances in Analog Circuit Design. Expert designers present readers with information about a variety of topics at the frontier of analog circuit design, including next-generation analog-to-digital converters , high-performance power management systems and technology considerations for advanced IC design. For anyone involved in analog circuit research and development, this book will be a valuable summary of the state-of-the-art in these areas. Provides a summary of the state-of-the-art in analog circuit design, written by experts from industry and academia; Presents material in a tutorial-based format; Includes coverage of next-generation analog-to-digital converters, high-performance power management systems, and technology considerations for advanced IC design.
There have been two major review articles on the iodine laser in the last ll seven years, liThe Photochemical Iodine Laser by K. Hohla and K. Kompa (Handbook of Chemical Lasers, edited by R. Gross and J. Bott, Wi 1 ey, New York,1976) and a SANDIA report (No. 78-1071, 1978) entitled liThe Atomic Iodine Laserll. Since then, a large body of new material has been published, and practical experience has been gained with large iodine laser systems in Garchi ng (ASTERIX II I) and in the USSR. These 1 asers have now become very reliable tools, especially in fusion-oriented plasma experiments, which represent their main field of application. They can deliver powers in excess of many terawatts per beam and are thus also suited for use in other areas such as X-ray lasers, incoherent X-ray sources, compression of matter and its behaviour at very high densities. The physics of the iodine laser is now rather well understood, and its technology has reached a standard adequate for the construction of large scale systems in the multi-hundred kJ range. In view of this new situation, we thought it useful to document the present state of the art ina book. Its contents and the literature cited therein have been chosen to cover those areas which are of main concern in the design and operation of pulsed high-power iodine lasers.
Written at the graduate level, Generation and Application of High Power Microwaves discusses the basic physics of the generation of microwave and radiofrequency waves in the megawatt power range and the application of these ideas to a range of devices such as klystrons, gyrotrons, and free electron lasers. The book also contains chapters covering the transmission of the power through waveguides and the problems associated with mode conversion in transmission lines. The main application area covered is the heating and current drive in tokamaks and other devices for research into controlled nuclear fusion. Other applications of high power microwave technology are not neglected, and among those discussed are multiple charged ion and soft x-ray sources, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, advanced materials processing, millimeter wave radar, and supercolliders.
Linear induction accelerators are successfully used as power supplies for numerous devices of relativistic high-frequency electronics. This book addresses ways to solve physical and engineering problems arising in the calculation, design, modeling and operation of linear induction accelerators intended for supplying relativistic microwave devices. It reviews and analyzes both classic and recent studies on the topic of linear induction accelerators (LIA) for generating and amplifying microwave radiation by relativistic devices.