This manual focuses on how and when a set of low-cost or free drugs should be used in developing countries to control a set of diseases caused by worm infections. Preventive chemotherapy in this context means using drugs that are effective against a broad range of worm infections to simultaneously treat the four most common diseases caused by worms: river blindness (onchocerciasis), elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis), schistosomiasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Significant opportunities also exist to integrate these efforts with the prevention and control of diseases such as trachoma. The new approach provides a critical first step in combining treatment regimens for diseases which, although different in themselves, require common resources and delivery strategies for control or elimination.
This guideline provides global, evidence-informed recommendations on preventive chemotherapy, as a public health intervention in areas endemic for soil-transmitted helminths, to decrease the worm burden of soil-transmitted helminth infection in children, adolescent girls, women of reproductive age and pregnant women, including those coinfected with HIV. The recommendations contained in this guideline are intended for a wide audience, including policymakers and their expert advisers as well as technical and program staff at government institutions and organizations involved in the design, implementation and expansion of programs to control soil-transmitted helminth infections and nutrition-sensitive actions for a safe and hygienic environment to improve public health. This guideline aims to help WHO Member States and their partners to make evidence-informed decisions on the appropriate actions in their efforts to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and the global targets presented in the World Health Assembly resolution WHA66.12 on: - Neglected tropical diseases - Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition - Global strategy for women's, children's, and adolescents' health (2016-2030) - Water, sanitation and hygiene for accelerating and sustaining progress on neglected tropical diseases: a global strategy 2015-2020 - Accelerating work to overcome the global impact of neglected tropical diseases: a roadmap for implementation - Accelerating progress on HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, hepatitis and neglected tropical diseases: a new agenda for 2016-2030 - Eliminating soil-transmitted helminthiases as a public health problem in children: progress report 2001-2010 and strategic plan 2011-2020.
Human helminthiasis, known as worm infections, is any macroparasitic disease affecting humans, in which a part of the body is invaded by a lot of worms, known as helminths. They are broadly classified into flukes, tapeworms, and roundworms. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are the most important, being included into the neglected tropical diseases. Helminthiasis has been found to result in poor birth outcome, less cognitive development, lower school and work performance, lower socioeconomic development, and poverty. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are responsible for parasitic infections in as much as a quarter of the human population worldwide. This group of infective diseases has been targeted under the joint action of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies and local governments, trying to achieve their eradication.
"Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) blight the lives of a billion people worldwide and threaten the health of millions more. These ancient companions of poverty weaken impoverished populations, frustrate the achievement of health in the Millennium Development Goals and impede global health and economies has convinced governments, donors, the pharmaceutical industry and other agencies, including nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), to invest in preventing and controlling this diverse group of diseases. Global efforts to control "hidden" diseases, such as dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease), leprosy, gains including the imminent eradication of dracunculiasis. Since 1989 (when most endemic countries began reporting monthly from each endemic village), the number of new dracunculiasis cases has fallen from 892 055 in 12 endemic countries to 3190 in 4 countries in 2009, a decrease of more than 99%. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends five public-health strategies for the prevention and control of NTDs: preventive chemotherapy; intensified case-management; vector control; the provision of safe water, sanitation and hygiene; and veterinary public health (that is, applying veterinary sciences to ensure the health and well-being of humans). Although one approach and delivered locally." - p. vii
Highlighting Operational and Implementation Research for Control of Helminthiasis, Volume 103 in the Advances in Parasitology series, includes medical studies of parasites of major influence, along with reviews of more traditional areas, such as zoology, taxonomy and life history, all topics which help to shape current thinking and applications. This latest release includes chapters on Helminthiasis Epidemiology and Control: Scoring Successes and Meeting the Remaining Challenges, Worms, History and Swiss TPH, Mobile Microscopy, Combination Chemotherapy, DNDi Portfolio, Pediatric Praziquantel, lessons learned, and Community and Drug Distributor Perceptions and Experiences of Mass Drug Administration for the Elimination of Lymphatic Filariasis, amongst other topics. Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of parasitology Contains contributions from leading authorities and industry experts Highlights operational and implementation research for control of helminthiasis
Schistosomiasis is a public health problem in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, the Caribbean and South America. It is one of the neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) - a group of diseases and conditions that affect particularly low-income populations, worldwide. Last year, WHO launched a new road map for 2021-2030 that aims to end the suffering from NTDs by 2030, in line with the Sustainable Development Goals. The road map specifically targets the elimination of schistosomiasis as a public health problem, globally. This guideline provides evidence-based recommendations in the following areas: prevalence thresholds, target age groups and frequency of PC, establishment of WASH and snail control activities to support control and elimination of schistosomiasis, diagnostic tests for the assessment of schistosomiasis infection in animal reservoirs, in snail hosts, and in humans. The guideline will provide support to Member States, programme managers, health workers and other stakeholders on the implementation of national schistosomiasis control and elimination programme.
This book provides an overview on the major neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) occurring in Sub-Saharan Africa, such as Leishmaniasis, Buruli Ulcer and Schistosomiasis. In well-structured chapters epidemiology and biology of these parasitic diseases will be discussed in detail. Further, diagnostics and therapeutic approaches as well as prevention strategies will be reviewed. The book will be of interest to basic researchers and clinicians engaged in infectious disease, tropical medicine, and parasitology, and a must-have for scientists specialized in the characteristics of the Sub-Saharan region.
"Produced under the overall direction and supervision of Dr. Lorenzo Savioli (Director) and Dr. Denis Daumerie (Programme Manager), WHO Department of Control of Neglected Tropical Diseases"--Back of title page.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) afflict more than 1.4 billion people, many of whom live on less than $1.25 a day. While there are effective ways to manage NTDs, policy-makers and funders have only recently begun to recognize the economic and public health importance of controlling NTDs. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats held a workshop September 21-22, 2010, to discuss the science of and policy surrounding NTDs.