Released on 2010-02-11Categories Law

Rationality and the Genetic Challenge

Rationality and the Genetic Challenge

Author: Matti Häyry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 0521757134

Category: Law

Page: 286

View: 548

Should we make people healthier, smarter, and longer-lived if genetic and medical advances enable us to do so? Matti Häyry asks this question in the context of genetic testing and selection, cloning and stem cell research, gene therapies and enhancements. The ethical questions explored include parental responsibility, the use of people as means, the role of hope and fear in risk assessment, and the dignity and meaning of life. Taking as a starting point the arguments presented by Jonathan Glover, John Harris, Ronald M. Green, Jürgen Habermas, Michael J. Sandel, and Leon R. Kass, who defend a particular normative view as the only rational or moral answer, Matti Häyry argues that many coherent rationalities and moralities exist in the field, and that to claim otherwise is mistaken.
Released on 2010-02-11Categories Law

Rationality and the Genetic Challenge

Rationality and the Genetic Challenge

Author: Matti Häyry

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139486705

Category: Law

Page:

View: 628

Should we make people healthier, smarter, and longer-lived if genetic and medical advances enable us to do so? Matti Häyry asks this question in the context of genetic testing and selection, cloning and stem cell research, gene therapies and enhancements. The ethical questions explored include parental responsibility, the use of people as means, the role of hope and fear in risk assessment, and the dignity and meaning of life. Taking as a starting point the arguments presented by Jonathan Glover, John Harris, Ronald M. Green, Jürgen Habermas, Michael J. Sandel, and Leon R. Kass, who defend a particular normative view as the only rational or moral answer, Matti Häyry argues that many coherent rationalities and moralities exist in the field, and that to claim otherwise is mistaken.
Released on 2019-08-13Categories

Genetics and Plant Breeding

Genetics and Plant Breeding

Author: Roderick Wiley &

Publisher: Scientific e-Resources

ISBN: 9781839472718

Category:

Page: 304

View: 106

Plant breeding concerned with the improvement of crops through techniques involving creation of genetic variation and subsequent selection of the desirable genotype is crucial to the continual growth of agriculture especially if the introduction of such crops with characters like high yield superior quality early maturity resistance to disease and pests etc. is to be done. Genetically modified plants are created by the process of genetic engineering, which allows scientists to move genetic material between organisms with the aim of changing their characteristics. All organisms are composed of cells that contain the DNA molecule. Molecules of DNA form units of genetic information, known as genes. Modern techniques of genetic engineering an: essentially a refinement of the kinds of genetic modifications that have long been used to enhance plants, microorganisms and animals for food. Advancements in molecular and cell biology have led to the development of a range of techniques for manipulating genomes, collectively termed as biotechnology. Today, biotechnology is being used as a tool to give plants new traits that benefit agricultural production, the environment and human nutrition and health. This book aims at providing the basic background on all aspects related to cell, genetics and plant breeding.
Released on 2018-05-14Categories

Genetics Embryology and Fishes

Genetics Embryology and Fishes

Author: Rowan Phelps

Publisher: Scientific e-Resources

ISBN: 9781839472725

Category:

Page: 316

View: 729

This book is a foundational, illustrative survey of troublesome ideas in genetics and embryology as they apply to the ear and tactile organs serving hearing and adjust. It gives a one of a kind asset that brings atomic, cell and frameworks level systems together to hold up under on understanding the ontogeny of hearing and vestibular faculties. Various representations are utilized to help pass on current thoughts. Genes and gene items related with layer channels, atomic flagging falls, translation elements and more are characterized here. The creators clarify the significance of genes, sub-atomic flagging and cell associations to typical improvement and also to human inward ear sickness including deafness and adjust issue. The detonating measure of new data on formative sub-atomic systems is incorporated with new and since quite a while ago settled disclosures about useful and anatomical changes amid ontogeny. Recent advances in fish cytogenetics have upgraded the enthusiasm for chromosome examination in both crucial (systematics and near genomics among angles and other vertebrate gatherings) and connected (aquaculture, preservation and reaction to poisons, entire genome sequencing of model fish species) investigate. Despite the fact that the genomic material, the chromosomes, is fundamentally the same in the different creatures, encounter has plainly demonstrated that fish chromosomes must be taken care of with particular conventions.
Released on 2018-12-01Categories

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

Genetics and Genetic Engineering

Author: Tomas Cannon

Publisher: Scientific e-Resources

ISBN: 9781839472701

Category:

Page: 384

View: 612

Genetics and Genetic Engineering explores the great discoveries in genetics-the study of genes and the inherited information they contain. Genetic engineering alters the genetic make-up of an organism using techniques that remove heritable material or that introduce DNA prepared outside the organism either directly into the host or into a cell that is then fused or hybridized with the host. This involves using recombinant nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) techniques to form new combinations of heritable genetic material followed by the incorporation of that material either indirectly through a vector system or directly through micro-injection, macro-injection and micro-encapsulation techniques. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. It is a set of technologies used to change the genetic makeup of cells, including the transfer of genes within and across species boundaries to produce improved or novel organisms. New DNA is obtained by either isolating or copying the genetic material of interest using recombinant DNA methods or by artificially synthesizing the DNA. A construct is usually created and used to insert this DNA into the host organism. The first recombinent DNA molecule was made by Paul Berg in 1972 by combining DNA from the monkey virus SV40with the lambda virus. As well as inserting genes, the process can be used to remove, or "e;knock out"e;, genes. The new DNA can be inserted randomly, or targeted to a specific part of the genome. This book will prove equally useful for physicians, nurses, animal breeders, and laboratory technicians-in fact, everyone whose daily work involves genetics and genetic engineering.
Released on 2019-12-08Categories

Genetics and Biotechnology

Genetics and Biotechnology

Author: Lynn Cook

Publisher: Scientific e-Resources

ISBN: 9781839472688

Category:

Page: 320

View: 137

Genetics is the study of heredity and how it affects plants and animals, while biotechnology is the application of modern DNA marker, isolation, and transfer technologies toward improving plant and animal agricultural productivity, environmental remediation, and the treatment of disease. Genetics and Biotechnology are relatively new fields of study and use biotechniques to genetically improve economically important plants and animals. This field holds tremendous promise for meeting the food and fiber needs of the developing world. Students are prepared for immediate employment or for graduate study in plant and animal biotechnology, molecular biology, genetics, or the health professions. Genetic manipulation of whole organisms has been happening naturally by sexual reproduction since the beginning of time. The evolutionary progress of almost all living creatures has involved active interaction between their genomes and the environment. Active control of sexual reproduction has been practiced in agriculture for decades - even centuries. In more recent times it has been used with several industrial microorganisms. It involves selection, mutation, sexual crosses, hybridisation, etc. Biotechnology has so far been considered as an interplay between two components, one of which is the selection of the best biocatalyst for a particular process, while the other is the construction and operation of the best environment for the catalyst to achieve optimum operation. The overall objective of this book is to provide a professional level reference work with comprehensive coverage of the molecular basis of life and the application of that knowledge in genetics, evolution, medicine, and agriculture.
Released on 2019-08-21Categories

Genetics and Physiology of Microbes

Genetics and Physiology of Microbes

Author: Kobe Donaldson

Publisher: Scientific e-Resources

ISBN: 9781839471919

Category:

Page: 320

View: 930

Metabolic patterns of living organisms are based on the underlying genetic machinery. The variety of physiological processes in living organisms both micro and macro has been built on the plasticity and adaptability of their genome. Hereditary and physiology of microbes primarily deals with the varying mechanisms of metabolic processes and an equally varying array of genetic patterns. This book holds the intelligent, simple to-take after association of the past versions. A prologue to cell structure and amalgamation of cell parts is given, trailed by itemized dialogs of genetics, digestion, development, and control for anybody wishing to comprehend the instruments hidden cell survival and development. This far reaching reference approaches the subject from an advanced atomic hereditary point of view, consolidating new bits of knowledge picked up from different genome ventures. Microbial genetics, be that as it may, manages their structure, association, transmission and capacity of qualities, and the starting point of variety in them with reference to microorganisms. These two branches of microbiology are very investigated amid the current past and are, truth be told, the focal creed of natural sciences.
Released on 2019-07-01Categories

Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture

Biotechnology and Genetics in Fisheries and Aquaculture

Author: Boston Pickett

Publisher: Scientific e-Resources

ISBN: 9781839472640

Category:

Page: 308

View: 601

The significance of Biotechnology in the field of fisheries and aquaculture is investigated in view of distributed writing. Aquaculture is the cultivating and farming of oceanic life forms and as it is the quickest developing sustenance area on the planet with its expanding part for economy and safe nourishment system of nations. Because of the proceeding with exhaustion of the fish stocks, cultivating of amphibian life forms, for example, angle, shellfish, mollusks and sea-going plants, is presently a considerable worldwide industry providing a critical extent of the oceanic items devoured. Deficiency in nourishment supply and high costs are the conceivable vital dangers later on, and sea-going items are the important wellsprings of protein and fundamental supplement segments for worldwide sustenance security and wiping out ailing health. Aquaculture additionally assumes an imperative part in country economies through the making of new occupations. In these cases, aquaculture yields should be improved a few overlay to meet the rising requests for angle and other sea-going items in coming years. Biotechnology choices appear to be great potential for expanding water social efficiency, nourishment security and ecological quality around the world. Therefore, this book talked about the significance of biotechnology in aquaculture, and arrangements for the ecologically stable utilize and administration of water social biotechnology in feasible improvement of fisheries.
Released on 2014-08-13Categories Science

From Bench to Bedside, to Track & Field

From Bench to Bedside, to Track & Field

Author: Silvia Camporesi

Publisher: Lulu.com

ISBN: 9780988986541

Category: Science

Page: 187

View: 115

This book represents a unique contribution to the debate on enhancement technologies as it spans from the bench of molecular biology where the technologies are being developed, to the bedside of a clinical trial where they are used for selective reproduction or for first-in-human gene therapy studies, to the track & field where they are being applied to enhance human athletic performance. These investigations address current debates regarding the resurgence of eugenics in relation to genetic technologies, and provide a clear and much needed ethical autopsy of contemporary genetic practices.
Released on 2020-05-14Categories Philosophy

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability

The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability

Author: Adam Cureton

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780190622886

Category: Philosophy

Page: 944

View: 256

Disability raises profound and fundamental issues: questions about human embodiment and well-being; dignity, respect, justice and equality; personal and social identity. It raises pressing questions for educational, health, reproductive, and technology policy, and confronts the scope and direction of the human and civil rights movements. Yet it is only recently that disability has become the subject of the sustained and rigorous philosophical inquiry that it deserves. The Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Disability is the first comprehensive volume on the subject. The volume's contents range from debates over the definition of disability to the challenges posed by disability for justice and dignity; from the relevance of disability for respect, other interpersonal attitudes, and intimate relationships to its significance for health policy, biotechnology, and human enhancement; from the ways that disability scholarship can enrich moral and political philosophy, to the importance of physical and intellectual disabilities for the philosophy of mind and action. The contributions reflect the variety of areas of expertise, intellectual orientations, and personal backgrounds of their authors. Some are founding philosophers of disability; others are promising new scholars; still others are leading philosophers from other areas writing on disability for the first time. Many have disabilities themselves. This volume boldly explores neglected issues, offers fresh perspectives on familiar ones, and ultimately expands philosophy's boundaries. More than merely presenting an overview of existing work, this Handbook will chart the growth and direction of a vital and burgeoning field for years to come.
Released on 2012-09-07Categories Medical

Thieves of Virtue

Thieves of Virtue

Author: Tom Koch

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 9780262304603

Category: Medical

Page: 376

View: 998

An argument against the “lifeboat ethic” of contemporary bioethics that views medicine as a commodity rather than a tradition of care and caring. Bioethics emerged in the 1960s from a conviction that physicians and researchers needed the guidance of philosophers in handling the issues raised by technological advances in medicine. It blossomed as a response to the perceived doctor-knows-best paternalism of the traditional medical ethic and today plays a critical role in health policies and treatment decisions. Bioethics claimed to offer a set of generally applicable, universally accepted guidelines that would simplify complex situations. In Thieves of Virtue, Tom Koch contends that bioethics has failed to deliver on its promises. Instead, he argues, bioethics has promoted a view of medicine as a commodity whose delivery is predicated not on care but on economic efficiency. At the heart of bioethics, Koch writes, is a “lifeboat ethic” that assumes “scarcity” of medical resources is a natural condition rather than the result of prior economic, political, and social choices. The idea of natural scarcity requiring ethical triage signaled a shift in ethical emphasis from patient care and the physician's responsibility for it to neoliberal accountancies and the promotion of research as the preeminent good. The solution to the failure of bioethics is not a new set of simplistic principles. Koch points the way to a transformed medical ethics that is humanist, responsible, and defensible.