Released on 2006-07-15Categories Business & Economics

Project Valuation Using Real Options

Project Valuation Using Real Options

Author: Prasad Kodukula

Publisher: J. Ross Publishing

ISBN: 1932159436

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 256

View: 852

Business leaders are frequently faced with investment decisions on new and ongoing projects. The challenge lies in deciding what projects to choose, expand, contract, defer, or abandon, and which method of valuation to use is the key tool in the process. This title presents a step-by-step, practical approach to real options valuation to make it easily understandable by practitioners as well as senior management. This systematic approach to project valuation helps you minimize upfront investment risks, exercise flexibility in decision making, and maximize the returns. Whereas the traditional decision tools such as discounted cash flow/net present value (DCF/NPV) analysis assume a “fixed” path ahead, real options analysis offers more flexible strategies. Considered one of the greatest innovations of modern finance, the real options approach is based on Nobel-prize winning work by three MIT economists, Fischer Black, Robert Merton, and Myron Scholes.
Released on 1996-03-14Categories Business & Economics

Real Options

Real Options

Author: Lenos Trigeorgis

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 026220102X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 452

View: 894

Comprehensive in scope, Real Options reviews current techniques of capital budgeting and details an approach (based on the pricing of options) that provides a means of quantifying the elusive elements of managerial flexibility in the face of unexpected changes in the market. In the 1970s and the 1980s, developments in the valuation of capital-investment opportunities based on options pricing revolutionized capital budgeting. Managerial flexibility to adapt and revise future decisions in order to capitalize on favorable future opportunities or to limit losses has proven vital to long-term corporate success in an uncertain and changing marketplace. In this book Lenos Trigeorgis, who has helped shape the field of real options, brings together a wealth of previously scattered knowledge and research on the new flexibility in corporate resource allocation and in the evaluation of investment alternatives brought about by the shift from static cash-flow approaches to the more dynamic paradigm of real options—an approach that incorporates decisions on whether to defer, expand, contract, abandon, switch use, or otherwise alter a capital investment. Comprehensive in scope, Real Options reviews current techniques of capital budgeting and details an approach (based on the pricing of options) that provides a means of quantifying the elusive elements of managerial flexibility in the face of unexpected changes in the market. Also discussed are the strategic value of new technology, project interdependence, and competitive interaction. The ability to value real options has so dramatically altered the way in which corporate resources are allocated that future textbooks on capital budgeting will bear little resemblance to those of even the recent past. Real Options is a pioneer in this area, coupling a coherent picture of how option theory is used with practical insights in into real-world applications.
Released on 1995Categories Business & Economics

Real Options in Capital Investment

Real Options in Capital Investment

Author: Lenos Trigeorgis

Publisher: Greenwood Publishing Group

ISBN: 0275946169

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 386

View: 569

A nation's culture and structure influence both the type and degree of innovation achievable within its society. Examines and discusses the latest developments in the valuation of capital investment opportunities.
Released on 2007-03-07Categories Business & Economics

Real Options and Investment Incentives

Real Options and Investment Incentives

Author: Gunther Friedl

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540482680

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 119

View: 322

This work analyzes the problem of delegated decision-making within firms when investment projects are characterized by the possibility to make subsequent decisions after the initial investment decision has been made. By analyzing this question, the monograph combines and unifies two important lines of literature: on the one hand the literature on controlling investment decisions, on the other hand the investment valuation literature.
Released on 2007-08-19Categories Business & Economics

The New Investment Theory of Real Options and its Implication for Telecommunications Economics

The New Investment Theory of Real Options and its Implication for Telecommunications Economics

Author: James J. Alleman

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9780585333144

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 280

View: 887

Randall B, Lowe Piper & Marbury, L.L.R The issue of costing and pricing in the telecommunications industry has been hotly debated for the last twenty years. Indeed, we are still wrestling today over the cost of the local exchange for access by interexchange and competitive local ex change carriers, as well as for universal service funding. The U.S. telecommunications world was a simple one before the emergence of competition, comprising only AT&T and independent local exchange carriers. Costs were allocated between intrastate and interstate jurisdictions and then again, between intrastate local and toll. The Bell System then divided those costs among itself (using a process referred to as the division of revenues) and independents (using a process called settlements). Tolls subsidized local calls to keep the politi cians happy, and the firm, as a whole, covered its costs and made a fair return. State regulators, however, lacked the wherewithal to audit this process. Their con cerns centered generally on whether local rates, irrespective of costs, were at a po litically acceptable level. Although federal regulators were better able to determine the reasonableness of the process and the resulting costs, they adopted an approach of "continuous surveillance" where, like the state regulator, the appearance of rea sonableness was what mattered. With the advent of competition, this historical costing predicate had to change. The Bell System, as well as the independents, were suddenly held accountable.
Released on 2012-12-06Categories Mathematics

A Stochastic Control Framework for Real Options in Strategic Evaluation

A Stochastic Control Framework for Real Options in Strategic Evaluation

Author: Alexander Vollert

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781461220688

Category: Mathematics

Page: 288

View: 521

The theoretical foundation for real options goes back to the mid 1980s and the development of a model that forms the basis for many current applications of real option theory. Over the last decade the theory has rapidly expanded and become enriched thanks to increasing research activity. Modern real option theory may be used for the valuation of entire companies as well as for particular investment projects in the presence of uncertainty. As such, the theory of real options can serve as a tool for more practically oriented decision making, providing management with strategies maximizing its capital market value. This book is devoted to examining a new framework for classifying real options from a management and a valuation perspective, giving the advantages and disadvantages of the real option approach. Impulse control theory and the theory of optimal stopping combined with methods of mathematical finance are used to construct arbitrarily complex real option models which can be solved numerically and which yield optimal capital market strategies and values. Various examples are given to demonstrate the potential of this framework. This work will benefit the financial community, companies, as well as academics in mathematical finance by providing an important extension of real option research from both a theoretical and practical point of view.
Released on 2007-07-05Categories Business & Economics

Real Options Theory

Real Options Theory

Author: Jeffrey J. Reuer

Publisher: Emerald Group Publishing

ISBN: 9781849504942

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 520

View: 370

Examines the ways in which real options theory can contribute to strategic management. This volume offers conceptual pieces that trace out pathways for the theory to move forward and presents research on the implications of real options for strategic investment, organization, and firm performance.
Released on 2012-07-02Categories Business & Economics

Real Options Analysis

Real Options Analysis

Author: Johnathan Mun

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781118429075

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 718

View: 161

"Mun demystifies real options analysis and delivers a powerful, pragmatic guide for decision-makers and practitioners alike. Finally, there is a book that equips professionals to easily recognize, value, and seize real options in the world around them." --Jim Schreckengast, Senior VP, R&D Strategy, Gemplus International SA, France Completely revised and updated to meet the challenges of today's dynamic business environment, Real Options Analysis, Second Edition offers you a fresh look at evaluating capital investment strategies by taking the strategic decision-making process into consideration. This comprehensive guide provides both a qualitative and quantitative description of real options; the methods used in solving real options; why and when they are used; and the applicability of these methods in decision making.
Released on 2009-10-27Categories Technology & Engineering

Real Options in Engineering Design, Operations, and Management

Real Options in Engineering Design, Operations, and Management

Author: Harriet Black Nembhard

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 142007170X

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 253

View: 542

Given that engineering flexibility can potentially provide a competitive advantage, the question then becomes: Precisely how valuable is this flexibility? However, traditional methods often fail to accurately capture the economic value of investments in an environment of widespread uncertainty and rapid change. The real options method represents the new state-of-the-art technique for valuation and management of strategic investments, enabling corporate decision-makers to leverage uncertainty and limit downside risk. Real Options in Engineering Design, Operations, and Management presents and synthesizes the body of knowledge in the area of real options for engineering systems. Providing case studies and step-by-step computations of real options valuation, it covers engineering applications across different disciplines such as industrial and civil engineering, and computer science. The authors review financial-option research results, consider how to quantify engineering activities, and analyze optimal business strategies based on a variety of real option models. They integrate academic work on real options in engineering, current practice, and discussion of future needs and opportunities. Flexibility in decision making allows firms to compete more effectively in a world of substantial price and demand uncertainty, product variety, short product life cycles, and rapid product development. And with more frequent demands being placed on engineering systems to change, managers and manufacturing systems must react to events as they unfold. This book explores a real options modeling framework for engineering transitions that allows decision makers to capture and investigate several alternatives for improving an engineering system.
Released on 2016-03-23Categories Business & Economics

Real Options Illustrated

Real Options Illustrated

Author: Linda Peters

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 9783319283104

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 107

View: 510

This book explains the standard Real Options Analysis (ROA) literature in a straightforward, step by step manner without the use of complex mathematics. A lot of ROA literature is described through partial differential equations, probability density functions and simulation techniques, all of which may be unconvincing in the applicable qualities ROA possesses. Using this book, the reader will have a better grasp about how ROA works and will be able to provide his or her judgment about ROA, since all the basics, as well as its positive and negative qualities, are discussed. Real Options Illustrated provides practitioners with a real options framework and encourages readers to study the methodology using the in-depth explanations. This introduction to ROA is sufficient to equip readers with ROA basics, enabling them to perform future independent research. From this book, readers can judge whether ROA is of any value to their field.
Released on 2010-08-03Categories Business & Economics

Real Options Valuation

Real Options Valuation

Author: Marcus Schulmerich

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642126628

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 389

View: 195

After the ?rst edition of this book was published in early 2005, the world has changed dramatically and at a pace never seen before. The changes that - curred in 2008 and 2009 were completely unthinkable two years before. These changes took place not only in the Finance sector, the origin of the crisis, but also, as a result, in other economic sectors like the automotive sector. Governments now own substantial parts, if not majorities, in banks or other companies which recorded losses of double digit billions of USD in 2008. 2008 saw the collapse of leading stand-alone U. S. investment banks. In many co- tries interest rates fell close to zero. What has happend? While the economy showed strong growth in 2004 to 2006, the Subprime or Credit Crisis changed the picture completely. What started in the U. S. ho- ing market in late 2006 became a full-?edged global ?nancial crisis and has a?ected ?nancial markets around the world. A decline in U. S. house prices and increasing interest rates caused a higher rate of subprime mortgage delinqu- cies in the U. S. and, due to the wide distribution of securitized assets, had a negative e?ect on other markets. As a result, markets realized that risks had been underestimated and volatility increased. This development culminated in the bankruptcy of the investment bank Lehman Brothers in mid September 2008.
Released on 2011-09-14Categories Business & Economics

What Is So Real About Real Options, and Why Are They Optional?

What Is So Real About Real Options, and Why Are They Optional?

Author: Johnathan Mun

Publisher: John Wiley and Sons

ISBN: 9781118006337

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 19

View: 347

In the past, corporate investment decisions were cut and dried. Buy a new machine that is more efficient, make more products costing a certain amount, and if the benefits outweigh the costs, execute the investment. Hire a larger pool of sales associates, expand the current geographical area, and if the marginal increase in forecast sales revenues exceeds the additional salary and implementation costs, start hiring. Need a new manufacturing plant? Show that the construction costs can be recouped quickly and easily by the increase in revenues the plant will generate through new and improved products, and the initiative is approved. However, real-life business conditions are a lot more complicated. Your firm decides to go with an e-commerce strategy, but multiple strategic paths exist. Which path do you choose? What are the options you have? If you choose the wrong path, how do you get back on the right track? How do you value and prioritize the paths that exist? You are a venture capitalist firm with multiple business plans to consider. How do you value a start-up firm with no proven track record? How do you structure a mutually beneficial investment deal? What is the optimal timing to a second or third round of financing? This chapter provides a novel approach to applying real options to answering these issues and more.