No safe harbours for steamboats or sailing vessels could be found along an isolated 70-mile stretch of eastern Lake Ontario, dominated by the irregular-shaped Prince Edward County peninsula. Frequent storms, rocky reefs and sandy shoals were among the many dangers facing 19th century mariners. So many shipwrecks mark one narrow and shallow underwater ridge in the region that it became known as the graveyard of Lake Ontario. It was on these shores, from Presquile Bay to Kingston harbour and along the Bay of Quinte, that a network of more than forty lighthouses and light towers was built between 1828 and 1914. FOR WANT OF A LIGHTHOUSE presents a sweeping look at the social and technological changes which marked the era, and brings to life the people, politics and hardships involved in the construction of these essential aids to navigation. Through the use of extensive archival material and more than 100 maps and photographs, Marc Seguin documents the vital role these lighthouses played in the building of a nation. There is now a race against time to save the few original towers that are still standing. All profits from the sale of this book will be used to preserve these remaining lighthouses.
Excerpt from Sessional Papers of the Dominion of Canada 1920 George VAlphabetical Index to Sessional Papers A.1920 No. Court Martial re trials bof certain Riflomen or Canadian Siberian Force.1919 96 oConsoii ijited Debt, of Canada Amount of in gross also net, etc 106 Corrt fponden( .copy of between Prime Minister, and Prime Mini.strof Gt. Britain 211 Customs and Inland Uevenue Report of 1919 11 Shipping Department, Report of.1919. lla Departments of the Government number of nonCanjidian-bom in Engineers, etc 214 Department of Health re sum of$200, 000 for combatting Veneral Disease 206 Demonstration Farm at Baie St. Paul, Co. of Charlevoix 195 Deputy Postmasterat Edmonton, Alberta reappointment of. 186 Dillon. John A., respecting retention as Fishing Overseer in Co. of Guysborough, N.S 199 Dismissals of Civil Servants in Cities of Cana since 1915 191 Dog-Fish Reduction Works Clarks Harbour. N.S. 180 Dominion Council of Health O.in C.appointing same, 1910 . 93a Dominion Tands Survey ActO. inC. respecting-. 74 Dominion Lands ActO. inC. respecting 75 Dominion Manufacturers ssociat ion respecting appeals connected with, from Supreme Court 153 Dominion Railways Commission re proceedings and evidence, at Ottawa in 1911. and 1919 136 a Edmonton. Alberta, re theft of$50, 000 from post office at 187 Election, Return of the Tliirteenth General 30 Emergency Fund for re-establishment of Soldiers amount overpaid to those not entitled 125 - 3 5 55 a 56 5858 a 16 Estimates of Canada. Supplementarj-. Further Supplementary Exchequer Court of Canada Rules and Orders of-. Frperimental Farms, Report of.1919 Explosives Division, Dept. of Mines Report of year 1919 no External Affairs Report of Department of, 1919 34 Federal Government of Canada Respecting number of persons employed by both sexes 85 Federal Housing Scheme Orders in Council respecting. 194 Feed for Live Stock in Southern Alberta cost of in years1918-19-20 104 Ferry, Steamboat between Ste. Catherine and Tadoussac, 173 Finance Department number of employees in including Insurance Dept.158 Fiset. Dr. Michel respecting appointment of in 1914 as Parcel Post Supervisor, Quebec City 204 Fisheries Branch at Ottawa names, salaries, etc. of, years1910-20 156 Forbes, J.L. A. Reports conccming indemnity paid to widow of 209 Forest Reserves and Parks Act; 72 Gagnon, F.X. correspondence between and Got., ra Military exemption 129 Geographic Hoard Report of including all decisions from 1917 to 1919 256 Geological Sur ej SBranch, Department of Mines, year 1919 26 Generals number of retiring, also number of promoted, etc. since six months past 183 Governor-Generals Warrants Statement respecting1919-20 51 Grain Superisors of Canada. Board of, O. inC. appointing.1919 68 Gnind Etang Harbour, X.S., re improvements on, years 191 S.1919, and 1920 224 (inind Trunk Ry. Co. of Canada Agreement between Government and 46 GNo. Greece rf Contract between Caniiilian Wheat Board and Govt, of Canjwla respecting Wheat 86 Greece amountji loaned, or credits given to datceof, etc U7Griffenhagen and Associatee O.in C.re contract with, by Government 216 HHalford, H.J. O.in Co. appointing as member of Dominion Council of Health Halifax Graxnng Dock rexpropriation of. Harbours of Halifax, St. John. Quebec, Montreal. Toronto. Hamilton, Port Arthur, ancouver. Amount of money spent in since Confederation Harbour Commission of Quebec Documents re construction of Docks, Elevators, etc Headquarters, Militia Department at Ottawa. names of all officers employed at. Highlanders 78 th Regt. of Pictou, N.S. rt names of officers of, etc Highlanders-78th Regt. of Pictou Co., N.S.f 0 names of officers of Historical Documents Publication Board Annual Report of Houses number of commenced and fmishetrunder Act of 1919 Imperial News Service Correspondence respecting establishment of same Income Tax Number of companies and persons paying in Toronto Inspectors of Terminal Elevators re authority of ImmigrationandColonismtiott Report of .
Fifteen years before the 1858 Fraser River gold rush, a Hudson’s Bay Company clerk named Alexander Caulfield Anderson threaded his way through mountain passes and down rapids-filled rivers in search of a safe all-British route through the mountains that separated the HBC fort at Kamloops from Fort Langley on the Pacific coast. Eventually, Anderson discovered four routes, succeeding where Alexander Mackenzie and Simon Fraser before him had failed. Without his explorations, historian Derek Pethick once wrote, British Columbia may never have come into being or become a part of the Dominion of Canada. For Anderson, the cross-country expeditions he undertook were welcome antidotes to a fur-trade life that wasn’t quite what he’d expected it to be. By the time he joined, in 1831, it was in fact a tightly controlled business that was very different from the adventurous trade that had inspired him. But though he may not have had his dream life, his spirit of adventure kept him going. As explorer, map-maker, artist and writer, he created a wealth of information to guide those of his time and far beyond, and his work—first in the fur trade, then in the communities in which he lived, and finally as Fisheries Inspector and Indian Reserve Commissioner for British Columbia—was always aimed at improving the future of the people he lived among.
The complex relationship between subsistence practices and formal markets should be a growing matter of concern for those uneasy with the stark contrast between commercial and local food systems, especially since self-provisioning has never been limited to the margins. In fact, subsistence occupies a central space in local and global economies and networks. Bringing together essays from diverse disciplines to reflect on the meaning of subsistence in theory and in practice, in historical and contemporary contexts, in Canada and beyond, Subsistence under Capitalism is a collective study of the ways in which local food systems have been relegated to the shadows by the drive to establish and expand capitalist markets. Considering fishing, farming, and other forms of subsistence provisioning, the essays in this volume document the persistence of these practices despite capitalist government policies that actively seek to subsume them. Presenting viable alternatives to capitalist production and exchange, the contributors explain the critical interplay between politics, local provisioning, and the ultimate survival of society. Illuminating new kinds of engagements with nature and community, Subsistence under Capitalism looks behind the scenes of subsistence food provisioning to challenge the dominant economic paradigm of the modern world.
The federal Department of Justice was established by John A. Macdonald as part of the Conservative party's program for reform of the parliamentary system following Confederation. Among other things, it was charged with establishing national institutions such as the Supreme Court and the North West Mounted Police and with centralizing the penitentiary system. In the process, the department took on a position of primary importance in post-Confederation politics. This was particularly so up to 1878, when Confederation was "completed." Jonathan Swainger considers the growth and development of the ostensibly apolitical Department of Justice in the eleven years after the union of 1867. Drawing on legal records and other archival documents, he details the complex interactions between law and politics, exploring how expectations both inside and outside the legal system created an environment in which the department acted as an advisor to the government. He concludes by considering the post-1878 legacy of the department's approach to governance, wherein any problem, legal or otherwise, was made amenable to politicized solutions. Unfortunately for the department and the federal government, this left them ill-prepared for the constitutional battles to come. One crucial task was to establish responsibilities within the federal government, rather than just duplicate offices which had existed prior to union. Others were the establishment of national or quasi- national institutions such as the Supreme Court (1875) and the North-West Mounted Police (1873), the redrafting of the Governor-General's instructions (which was done between 1875 and 1877), and centralization of the penitentiary system (completed by 1875). The Department benefited from a deeply rooted expectation that law was both apolitical and necessary. This ideology functioned in a variety of ways: it gave the Department considerable latitude for setting policy and solving problems, but rationalized the appearance of politicized legal decisions. It also legitimized Department officials' claim that it was especially suited to review all legislation, advise on the royal prerogative of mercy, administer national penitentiaries, and appoint judges to the bench. Ultimately, the fictional notion of law as apolitical and necessary placed the Department of Justice squarely in the midst of the completion of Confederation. The Canadian Department of Justice and the Completion of Confederation will be of particular interest to students and scholars of Canadian legal and political history.
With growing concerns about the security, cost, and ecological consequences of energy use, people around the world are becoming more conscious of the systems that meet their daily needs for food, heat, cooling, light, transportation, communication, waste disposal, medicine, and goods. Powering Up Canada is the first book to examine in detail how various sources of power, fuel, and energy have sustained Canadians over time and played a pivotal role in their history. Powering Up Canada investigates the ways that the production, processing, transportation, use, and waste issues of various forms of energy changed over time, transforming almost every aspect of society in the process. Chapters in the book's first part explore the energies of the organic regime – food, animal muscle, water, wind, and firewood-- while those in the second part focus on the coal, oil, gas, hydroelectricity, and nuclear power that define the mineral regime. Contributors identify both continuities and disparities in Canada’s changing energy landscape in this first full overview of the country’s distinctive energy history. Reaching across disciplinary boundaries, these essays not only demonstrate why and how energy serves as a lens through which to better understand the country’s history, but also provide ways of thinking about some of its most pressing contemporary concerns. Engaging Canadians in an urgent international discussion on the social and environmental history of energy production and use – and its profound impact on human society – Powering Up Canada details the nature and significance of energy in the past, present, and future. Contributors include Jenny Clayton (University of Victoria), George Colpitts (University of Calgary), Colin Duncan (Queen’s University), J.I. Little (Emeritus, Simon Fraser University), Joanna Dean (Carleton University), Matthew Evenden (University of British Columbia), Laurel Sefton MacDowell (Emerita, University of Toronto Mississauga), Joshua MacFadyen (Arizona State University), Eric Sager (University of Victoria), Jonathan Peyton (University of Manitoba), Steve Penfold (University of Toronto), Philip van Huizen (McMaster University), Andrew Watson (University of Saskatchewan), and Lucas Wilson (independent scholar).