This textbook presents the foundations of tensor calculus and the elements of tensor analysis, in addition to considering numerous applications of tensors to geometry, mechanics and physics. While developing tensor calculus, the authors emphasize its relationship with linear algebra. Necessary notions and theorems of linear algebra are introduced and proved in connection with the construction of the apparatus of tensor calculus; prior knowledge is not assumed. For simplicity and to enable the reader to visualize concepts more clearly, all exposition is conducted in three-dimensional space. The principal feature of the book is that the authors use mainly orthogonal tensors, since such tensors are important in applications to physics and engineering. All notions introduced in the book, and also the obtained results, are illustrated with numerous examples discussed in the text. Each section of the book presents problems (a total over 300 problems are given). Examples and problems are intended to illustrate, reinforce textbook presents the foundations of tensor calculus and the elements of tensor analysis, in addition to considering numerous applications of tensors to geometry, mechanics and physics. While developing tensor calculus, the authors emphasize its relationship with linear algebra. Necessary notions and theorems of linear algebra are introduced and proved in connection with the construction of the apparatus of tensor calculus; prior knowledge is not assumed. For simplicity and to enable the reader to visualize concepts more clearly, all exposition is conducted in three-dimensional space. The principal feature of the book is that the authors use mainly orthogonal tensors, sincesuch tensors are important in applications to physics and engineering. All notions introduced in the book, and also the obtained results, are illustrated with numerous examples discussed in the text. Each section of the book p

The aim of this book is to make the subject easier to understand. This book provides clear concepts, tools, and techniques to master the subject -tensor, and can be used in many fields of research. Special applications are discussed in the book, to remove any confusion, and for absolute understanding of the subject. In most books, they emphasize only the theoretical development, but not the methods of presentation, to develop concepts. Without knowing how to change the dummy indices, or the real indices, the concept cannot be understood. This book takes it down a notch and simplifies the topic for easy comprehension. Features Provides a clear indication and understanding of the subject on how to change indices Describes the original evolution of symbols necessary for tensors Offers a pictorial representation of referential systems required for different kinds of tensors for physical problems Presents the correlation between critical concepts Covers general operations and concepts

The tensorial nature of a quantity permits us to formulate transformation rules for its components under a change of basis. These rules are relatively simple and easily grasped by any engineering student familiar with matrix operators in linear algebra. More complex problems arise when one considers the tensor fields that describe continuum bodies. In this case general curvilinear coordinates become necessary. The principal basis of a curvilinear system is constructed as a set of vectors tangent to the coordinate lines. Another basis, called the dual basis, is also constructed in a special manner. The existence of these two bases is responsible for the mysterious covariant and contravariant terminology encountered in tensor discussions. A tensor field is a tensor-valued function of position in space. The use of tensor fields allows us to present physical laws in a clear, compact form. A byproduct is a set of simple and clear rules for the representation of vector differential operators such as gradient, divergence, and Laplacian in curvilinear coordinate systems. This book is a clear, concise, and self-contained treatment of tensors, tensor fields, and their applications. The book contains practically all the material on tensors needed for applications. It shows how this material is applied in mechanics, covering the foundations of the linear theories of elasticity and elastic shells. The main results are all presented in the first four chapters. The remainder of the book shows how one can apply these results to differential geometry and the study of various types of objects in continuum mechanics such as elastic bodies, plates, and shells. Each chapter of this new edition is supplied with exercises and problems most with solutions, hints, or answers to help the reader progress. An extended appendix serves as a handbook-style summary of all important formulas contained in the book.

Concise, readable text ranges from definition of vectors and discussion of algebraic operations on vectors to the concept of tensor and algebraic operations on tensors. Worked-out problems and solutions. 1968 edition.

The purpose of this book is to provide core material in nonlinear analysis for mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and mathematical biologists. The main goal is to provide a working knowledge of manifolds, dynamical systems, tensors, and differential forms. Some applications to Hamiltonian mechanics, fluid me chanics, electromagnetism, plasma dynamics and control thcory arc given in Chapter 8, using both invariant and index notation. The current edition of the book does not deal with Riemannian geometry in much detail, and it does not treat Lie groups, principal bundles, or Morse theory. Some of this is planned for a subsequent edition. Meanwhile, the authors will make available to interested readers supplementary chapters on Lie Groups and Differential Topology and invite comments on the book's contents and development. Throughout the text supplementary topics are given, marked with the symbols ~ and {l:;J. This device enables the reader to skip various topics without disturbing the main flow of the text. Some of these provide additional background material intended for completeness, to minimize the necessity of consulting too many outside references. We treat finite and infinite-dimensional manifolds simultaneously. This is partly for efficiency of exposition. Without advanced applications, using manifolds of mappings, the study of infinite-dimensional manifolds can be hard to motivate.

This is the fourth and revised edition of a well-received book that aims at bridging the gap between the engineering course of tensor algebra on the one side and the mathematical course of classical linear algebra on the other side. In accordance with the contemporary way of scientific publications, a modern absolute tensor notation is preferred throughout. The book provides a comprehensible exposition of the fundamental mathematical concepts of tensor calculus and enriches the presented material with many illustrative examples. In addition, the book also includes advanced chapters dealing with recent developments in the theory of isotropic and anisotropic tensor functions and their applications to continuum mechanics. Hence, this monograph addresses graduate students as well as scientists working in this field. In each chapter numerous exercises are included, allowing for self-study and intense practice. Solutions to the exercises are also provided.

This book is intended to serve as a textbook for undergraduate and postgraduate students of mathematics. It will be useful to the researchers working in the field of differential geometry and its applications to general theory of relativity and other applied areas. It will also be helpful in preparing for the competitive examinations like IAS, IES, NET, PCS, and other higher education tests. The text starts with the basic concepts and results, which shall refer throughout this book and is followed by the study of the tensor algebra and its calculus, consisting the notion of tensor, its operations, and its different types; Christoffels symbols and its properties, the concept of covariant differentiation of tensors and its properties, tensor form of gradient, divergence, laplacian and curl, divergence of a tensor, intrinsic derivatives, and parallel displacement of vectors, Riemanns symbols and its properties, and application of tensor in different areas.

This textbook provides a rigorous approach to tensor manifolds in several aspects relevant for Engineers and Physicists working in industry or academia. With a thorough, comprehensive, and unified presentation, this book offers insights into several topics of tensor analysis, which covers all aspects of n-dimensional spaces. The main purpose of this book is to give a self-contained yet simple, correct and comprehensive mathematical explanation of tensor calculus for undergraduate and graduate students and for professionals. In addition to many worked problems, this book features a selection of examples, solved step by step. Although no emphasis is placed on special and particular problems of Engineering or Physics, the text covers the fundamentals of these fields of science. The book makes a brief introduction into the basic concept of the tensorial formalism so as to allow the reader to make a quick and easy review of the essential topics that enable having the grounds for the subsequent themes, without needing to resort to other bibliographical sources on tensors. Chapter 1 deals with Fundamental Concepts about tensors and chapter 2 is devoted to the study of covariant, absolute and contravariant derivatives. The chapters 3 and 4 are dedicated to the Integral Theorems and Differential Operators, respectively. Chapter 5 deals with Riemann Spaces, and finally the chapter 6 presents a concise study of the Parallelism of Vectors. It also shows how to solve various problems of several particular manifolds.

Fundamental introduction of absolute differential calculus and for those interested in applications of tensor calculus to mathematical physics and engineering. Topics include spaces and tensors; basic operations in Riemannian space, curvature of space, more.

This textbook is distinguished from other texts on the subject by the depth of the presentation and the discussion of the calculus of moving surfaces, which is an extension of tensor calculus to deforming manifolds. Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, this text invites its audience to take a fresh look at previously learned material through the prism of tensor calculus. Once the framework is mastered, the student is introduced to new material which includes differential geometry on manifolds, shape optimization, boundary perturbation and dynamic fluid film equations. The language of tensors, originally championed by Einstein, is as fundamental as the languages of calculus and linear algebra and is one that every technical scientist ought to speak. The tensor technique, invented at the turn of the 20th century, is now considered classical. Yet, as the author shows, it remains remarkably vital and relevant. The author’s skilled lecturing capabilities are evident by the inclusion of insightful examples and a plethora of exercises. A great deal of material is devoted to the geometric fundamentals, the mechanics of change of variables, the proper use of the tensor notation and the discussion of the interplay between algebra and geometry. The early chapters have many words and few equations. The definition of a tensor comes only in Chapter 6 – when the reader is ready for it. While this text maintains a consistent level of rigor, it takes great care to avoid formalizing the subject. The last part of the textbook is devoted to the Calculus of Moving Surfaces. It is the first textbook exposition of this important technique and is one of the gems of this text. A number of exciting applications of the calculus are presented including shape optimization, boundary perturbation of boundary value problems and dynamic fluid film equations developed by the author in recent years. Furthermore, the moving surfaces framework is used to offer new derivations of classical results such as the geodesic equation and the celebrated Gauss-Bonnet theorem.

This book is intended to serve as a Textbook for Undergraduate and Post - graduate students of Mathematics. It will be useful to the researchers working in the field of Differential geometry and its applications to general theory of relativity and other applied areas. It will also be helpful in preparing for the competitive examinations like IAS, IES, NET, PCS, and UP Higher Education exams. The text starts with a chapter on Preliminaries discussing basic concepts and results which would be taken for general later in the subsequent chapters of this book. This is followed by the Study of the Tensors Algebra and its operations and types, Christoffel's symbols and its properties, the concept of covariant differentiation and its properties, Riemann's symbols and its properties, and application of tensor in different areas in part – I and the study of the Theory of Curves in Space, Concepts of a Surface and Fundamental forms, Envelopes and Developables, Curvature of Surface and Lines of Curvature, Fundamental Equations of Surface Theory, Theory of Geodesics, Differentiable Manifolds and Riemannian Manifold and Application of Differential Geometry in Part –II. KEY FEATURES: Provides basic Concepts in an easy to understand style; Presentation of the subject in a natural way; Includes a large number of solved examples and illuminating illustrations; Exercise questions at the end of the topic and at the end of each chapter; Proof of the theorems are given in an easy to understand style; Neat and clean figures are given at appropriate places; Notes and remarks are given at appropriate places.