Released on 2007-03-06Categories Science

The Drift of Sea Ice

The Drift of Sea Ice

Author: Matti Leppäranta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783540269700

Category: Science

Page: 266

View: 889

This book presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift, as derived from the material properties of sea ice, the basic laws of mechanics, and the latest modeling techniques. Topics covered include the science of sea ice drift, forecasting velocity based on volume, size and shape, sea ice ridging and remote sensing, modelling of ice conditions, and the role of sea ice drift in oceanography, marine ecology and engineering.
Released on 2011-03-22Categories Science

The Drift of Sea Ice

The Drift of Sea Ice

Author: Matti Leppäranta

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9783642046834

Category: Science

Page: 350

View: 227

The Second Edition of The Drift of Sea Ice presents the fundamental laws of sea ice drift which come from the material properties of sea ice and the basic laws of mechanics. The resulting system of equations is analysed for the general properties of sea ice drift, the free drift model and analytical models for ice drift in the presence of internal friction, and the construction of numerical ice drift models is detailed. This second edition of a much lauded work, unique on this topic in the English language, has been revised, updated and expanded with much new information and outlines recent results, in particular in relation to the climate problem, mathematical modelling and ice engineering applications. The current book presents the theory, observations, mathematical modelling techniques, and applications of sea ice drift science. The theory is presented from the beginning on a graduate student level, so that students and researchers coming from other fields such as physical oceanography, meteorology, physics, engineering, environmental sciences or geography can use the book as a source book or self-study material. First the drift ice material is presented ending with the concept of ‘ice state’ – the relevant properties in sea ice dynamics. Ice kinematics observations are widely presented with the mathematical analysis methods, and thereafter come drift ice rheology – to close the triangle material – kinematics – stress. The momentum equation of sea ice is derived in detail and its general properties are carefully analysed. Then follow two chapters on analytical models: free drift and drift in the presence of internal friction: These are very important tools in understanding the dynamical behaviour of sea ice. The last topical chapter is numerical models, which are the modern tool to solve ice dynamics problem in short term and long term problems. The closing chapter summarises sea ice dynamics applications and the need of sea ice dynamic knowledge and gives some final remarks on the future of this branch of science.
Released on 2013-03-14Categories Science

Drift, Deformation, and Fracture of Sea Ice

Drift, Deformation, and Fracture of Sea Ice

Author: Jerome Weiss

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9789400762022

Category: Science

Page: 83

View: 434

Sea ice is a major component of polar environments, especially in the Arctic where it covers the entire Arctic Ocean throughout most of the year. However, in the context of climate change, the Arctic sea ice cover has been declining significantly over the last decades, either in terms of its concentration or thickness. The sea ice cover evolution and climate change are strongly coupled through the albedo positive feedback, thus possibly explaining the Arctic amplification of climate warming. In addition to thermodynamics, sea ice kinematics (drift, deformation) appears as an essential factor in the evolution of the ice cover through a reduction of the average ice age (and consequently of the cover's thickness), or ice export out of the Arctic. This is a first motivation for a better understanding of the kinematical and mechanical processes of sea ice. A more upstream, theoretical motivation is a better understanding of the brittle deformation of geophysical objects across a wide range of scales. Indeed, owing to its very strong kinematics, compared e.g. to the Earth’s crust, an unrivaled kinematical data set is available for sea ice from in situ (e.g. drifting buoys) or satellite observations. Here, we review the recent advances in the understanding of sea ice drift, deformation and fracturing obtained from these data. We focus particularly on the scaling properties in time and scale that characterize these processes, and we emphasize the analogies that can be drawn from the deformation of the Earth’s crust. These scaling properties, which are the signature of long-range elastic interactions within the cover, constrain future developments in the modeling of sea ice mechanics. We also show that kinematical and rheological variables such as average velocity, average strain-rate or strength have significantly changed over the last decades, accompanying and actually accelerating the Arctic sea ice decline.
Released on 2009-11-06Categories Technology & Engineering

Sea Ice

Sea Ice

Author: David N. Thomas

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 1444317156

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 640

View: 204

As the Arctic perennial sea ice continues to disappear at an alarming rate, a full understanding of sea ice as a crucial global ecosystem, and the effects of its loss is vital for all those working with and studying global climate change. Building on the success of the previous edition, the second edition of Sea Ice, now much expanded and in full colour throughout, includes six completely new chapters with complete revisions of all the chapters included from the first edition. The Editors, Professor David Thomas and Dr Gerhard Dieckmann have once again drawn together an extremely impressive group of internationally respected contributing authors, ensuring a comprehensive worldwide coverage of this incredibly important topic. Sea Ice, second edition, is an essential purchase for oceanographers and marine scientists, environmental scientists, biologists, geochemists and geologists. All those involved in the study of global climate change will find this book to contain a wealth of important information. All libraries in universities and research establishments where these subjects are studied and taught will need multiple copies of this book on their shelves. truly multidisciplinary approach world leading authors and editors international in scope, covering both Arctic and Antarctic work of vital interest to all those involved in global warming and climate change research highly illustrated full colour book with colour images throughout
Released on 2000-11Categories Nature

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change

Author: Jens Bischof

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 185233648X

Category: Nature

Page: 215

View: 857

The issue of global warming and climate change is of continuous concern. Since the 1970s, it bas been shown that the pack-ice around the Arctic Ocean is thinning, the margin of permafrost is moving north and the vegetation in the high northern parts of the world is changing (the 'greening' of the Arctic). But are these changes the result of human activity or simply regular variations of the Earth's climate system? Over thousands of years, a continuous archive of iceberg and sea ice drift bas formed in the deep-sea sediments, revealing the place of the ice's origin and allowing a reconstruction of the surface currents and the climate of the past. However, the drift of floating ice from one place to another is not just a passive record of past ocean circulation. It actively influences and changes the surface ocean circulation, thus having a profound effect on climate change. Ice Drift, Ocean Circulation and Climate Change is the first book to focus on the interactions between ice, the ocean and the atmosphere and to describe how these three components of the climate system influence each other. It makes clear the positive contribution of paleoclimatology and paleoceanography and should be read by anyone concerned with global warming and climate change.
Released on 2019-11-12Categories Technology & Engineering

Sea Ice in the Arctic

Sea Ice in the Arctic

Author: Ola M. Johannessen

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030213015

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 575

View: 224

This book provides in-depth information about the sea ice in the Arctic at scales from paleoenvironmental variability to more contemporary changes during the past and present centuries. The book is based on several decades of research related to sea ice in the Arctic and its variability, sea ice process studies as well as implications of the sea ice variability on human activities. The chapters provide an extensive overview of the research results related to sea ice in the Arctic at paleo-scales to more resent scales of variations as well as projections for changes during the 21st century. The authors have pioneered the satellite remote sensing monitoring of sea ice and used other monitoring data in order to study, monitor and model sea ice and its processes.
Released on 2017-09-30Categories Science

Sea Ice Analysis and Forecasting

Sea Ice Analysis and Forecasting

Author: Tom Carrieres

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108417426

Category: Science

Page:

View: 295

This book provides an advanced introduction to the science behind automated prediction systems, focusing on sea ice analysis and forecasting. Starting from basic principles, fundamental concepts in sea ice physics, remote sensing, numerical methods, and statistics are explained at an accessible level. Existing operational automated prediction systems are described and their impacts on information providers and end clients are discussed. The book also provides insight into the likely future development of sea ice services and how they will evolve from mainly manual processes to increasing automation, with a consequent increase in the diversity and information content of new ice products. With contributions from world-leading experts in the fields of sea ice remote sensing, data assimilation, numerical modelling, and verification and operational prediction, this comprehensive reference is ideal for students, sea ice analysts, and researchers, as well as decision-makers and professionals working in the ice service industry.