Released on 2021-09-16Categories Philosophy

The Epistemology of Reading and Interpretation

The Epistemology of Reading and Interpretation

Author: René van Woudenberg

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781009035965

Category: Philosophy

Page:

View: 506

Reading and textual interpretation are ordinary human activities, performed inside as well as outside academia, but precisely how they function as unique sources of knowledge is not well understood. In this book, René van Woudenberg explores the nature of reading and how it is distinct from perception and (attending to) testimony, which are two widely acknowledged knowledge sources. After distinguishing seven accounts of interpretation, van Woudenberg discusses the question of whether all reading inevitably involves interpretation, and shows that although reading and interpretation often go together, they are distinct activities. He goes on to argue that both reading and interpretation can be paths to realistically conceived truth, and explains the conditions under which we are justified in believing that they do indeed lead us to the truth. Along the way, he offers clear and novel analyses of reading, meaning, interpretation, and interpretative knowledge.
Released on 2018-11-07Categories Education

High Literacy in Secondary English Language Arts

High Literacy in Secondary English Language Arts

Author: Marc Nachowitz

Publisher: Rowman & Littlefield

ISBN: 9781498570763

Category: Education

Page: 260

View: 937

This volume culls scholarship on both what high literacy is and how it is developed. Descriptions of each component of high literacy (reading, writing, dialogic engagement, and epistemic cognition in literary reasoning) and how they relate to the others are followed by inspirational illustrations of high literacy instruction in practice.
Released on 2018-06-28Categories Philosophy

Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Volume 54

Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy, Volume 54

Author: Victor Caston

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198825128

Category: Philosophy

Page: 329

View: 589

"Volume LIV contains: an article on the equal sticks argument for Forms in Plato's Phaedo; an article on why Plato abandoned the Socratic method; and another on the cognition of the world soul in the Timaeus; two articles on Aristotle's Posterior Analytics, one on the prohibition against 'kind-crossing', the other on the requirements for a middle term's being an explanatory cause; an article on the mixture of elemental qualities in Aristotle's On Generation and Corruption 2. 7, and another on First Philosophy in Metaphysics Lambda; and an article on Alexander of Aphrodisias' use of dialectical method in his treatises On Fate and On Providence"--
Released on 2020-08-04Categories Performing Arts

Interpreting Films

Interpreting Films

Author: Janet Staiger

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691216065

Category: Performing Arts

Page:

View: 306

Employing a wide range of examples from Uncle Tom's Cabin and Birth of a Nation to Zelig and Personal Best, Janet Staiger argues that a historical examination of spectators' responses to films can make a valuable contribution to the history, criticism, and philosophy of cultural products. She maintains that as artifacts, films do not contain immanent meanings, that differences among interpretations have historical bases, and that these variations are due to social, political, and economic conditions as well as the viewers' constructed images of themselves. After proposing a theory of reception study, the author demonstrates its application mainly through analyzing the varying responses of audiences to certain films at specific moments in history. Staiger gives special attention to how questions of class, gender, sexual preference, race, and ethnicity enter into film viewers' interpretations. Her analysis reflects recent developments in post-structuralism, cognitive psychology, psychoanalysis, and cultural studies, and includes a discussion of current reader-response models in literary and film studies as well as an alternative approach for thinking about historical readers and spectators.
Released on 2003-05-05Categories Science

Grasping Reality

Grasping Reality

Author: Hans Lenk

Publisher: World Scientific

ISBN: 9789814488402

Category: Science

Page: 280

View: 435

Grasping Reality addresses the methodology of a sophisticated realistic approach to scientific as well as everyday recognition by using schemes and interpretative constructs to analyze theories and the practice of recognition from a hypothesis-realistic vantage point. The three main theses are: (1) Any “grasping” of real objects, processes, entities etc. is deeply dependent on scheme interpretations and interpretative constructs — in short, on using schemes and constructs; the same applies to any sophisticated actions encroaching on reality; (2) a sophisticated interpretation-dependent realism is sketched out and defended from a methodological, non-foundational, epistemological point of view called pragmatic realism; (3) the most provocative thesis is generalized from the role of the well-known preparationist interpretation of quantum theory to everyday knowledge — the interpretative structuring and preparing of the experimental make-up as known in quantum mechanics is not just a special case but the rather general case of gaining any knowledge in science and everyday recognition. An appendix provides an overview regarding a realistic and pragmatic philosophy of technology, including the so-called new information technologies. Contents:“Grasping” as Interpretation and ImpregnationMethodological Outline of the Systematic Scheme InterpretationismShort Note about “Grasping” in Traditional Philosophy“Truth” as a Metatheoretic Interpretative ConstructA Reappraisal Regarding “Theories” and “Theoretical Concepts”: Towards an Action-Theoretical and Technology-Oriented Philosophy of Science and EpistemologyReality Constructs and Different “Realisms”From a Kantian Towards a Problematistic-Interpretationist ApproachReferential Realism as an Interactionist InterpretationismInterpretation of Reality and Quantum TheoryRésumé: “Grasping” as Acting in (Re)cognizingAppendix — Progress and Characteristics of Traditional and New Technologies: Regarding a Realistic and Pragmatic Philosophy of Technology Readership: Graduate and higher level undergraduate students as well as researchers in epistemology. Keywords:
Released on 2016-01-22Categories Education

Handbook of Epistemic Cognition

Handbook of Epistemic Cognition

Author: Jeffrey A. Greene

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9781317746867

Category: Education

Page: 542

View: 497

The Handbook of Epistemic Cognition brings together leading work from across disciplines, to provide a comprehensive overview of an increasingly important topic: how people acquire, understand, justify, change, and use knowledge in formal and informal contexts. Research into inquiry, understanding, and discovery within academic disciplines has progressed from general models of conceptual change to a focus upon the learning trajectories that lead to expert-like conceptualizations, skills, and performance. Outside of academic domains, issues of who and what to believe, and how to integrate multiple sources of information into coherent and useful knowledge, have arisen as primary challenges of the 21st century. In six sections, scholars write within and across fields to focus and advance the role of epistemic cognition in education. With special attention to how researchers across disciplines can communicate and collaborate more effectively, this book will be an invaluable resource for anyone interested in the future of knowledge and knowing. Dr. Jeffrey A. Greene is an associate professor of Learning Sciences and Psychological Studies in the School of Education at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Dr. William A. Sandoval is a professor in the division of Urban Schooling at the UCLA Graduate School of Education & Information Studies. Dr. Ivar Bråten is a professor of Educational Psychology at the Faculty of Educational Sciences at the University of Oslo, Norway.
Released on 2021-12-10Categories Philosophy

On the Epistemology of Data Science

On the Epistemology of Data Science

Author: Wolfgang Pietsch

Publisher: Springer Nature

ISBN: 9783030864422

Category: Philosophy

Page: 295

View: 873

This book addresses controversies concerning the epistemological foundations of data science: Is it a genuine science? Or is data science merely some inferior practice that can at best contribute to the scientific enterprise, but cannot stand on its own? The author proposes a coherent conceptual framework with which these questions can be rigorously addressed. Readers will discover a defense of inductivism and consideration of the arguments against it: an epistemology of data science more or less by definition has to be inductivist, given that data science starts with the data. As an alternative to enumerative approaches, the author endorses Federica Russo’s recent call for a variational rationale in inductive methodology. Chapters then address some of the key concepts of an inductivist methodology including causation, probability and analogy, before outlining an inductivist framework. The inductivist framework is shown to be adequate and useful for an analysis of the epistemological foundations of data science. The author points out that many aspects of the variational rationale are present in algorithms commonly used in data science. Introductions to algorithms and brief case studies of successful data science such as machine translation are included. Data science is located with reference to several crucial distinctions regarding different kinds of scientific practices, including between exploratory and theory-driven experimentation, and between phenomenological and theoretical science. Computer scientists, philosophers and data scientists of various disciplines will find this philosophical perspective and conceptual framework of great interest, especially as a starting point for further in-depth analysis of algorithms used in data science.
Released on 2014-01-30Categories Philosophy

Hume's Epistemology in the Treatise

Hume's Epistemology in the Treatise

Author: Frederick F. Schmitt

Publisher: OUP Oxford

ISBN: 9780191505614

Category: Philosophy

Page: 432

View: 431

Frederick F. Schmitt offers a systematic interpretation of David Hume's epistemology, as it is presented in the indispensable A Treatise of Human Nature. Hume's text alternately manifests scepticism, empiricism, and naturalism in epistemology. Interpretations of his epistemology have tended to emphasise one of these apparently conflicting positions over the others. But Schmitt argues that the positions can be reconciled by tracing them to a single underlying epistemology of knowledge and probability quietly at work in the text, an epistemology according to which truth is the chief cognitive merit of a belief, and knowledge and probable belief are species of reliable belief. Hume adopts Locke's dichotomy between knowledge and probability and reassigns causal inference from its traditional place in knowledge to the domain of probability—his most significant departure from earlier accounts of cognition. This shift of causal inference to an associative and imaginative operation raises doubts about the merit of causal inference, suggesting the counterintuitive consequence that causal inference is wholly inferior to knowledge-producing demonstration. To defend his associationist psychology of causal inference from this suggestion, Hume must favourably compare causal inference with demonstration in a manner compatible with associationism. He does this by finding an epistemic status shared by demonstrative knowledge and causally inferred beliefs—the status of justified belief. On the interpretation developed here, he identifies knowledge with infallible belief and justified belief with reliable belief, i.e., belief produced by truth-conducive belief-forming operations. Since infallibility implies reliable belief, knowledge implies justified belief. He then argues that causally inferred beliefs are reliable, so share this status with knowledge. Indeed Hume assumes that causally inferred beliefs enjoy this status in his very argument for associationism. On the reliability interpretation, Hume's accounts of knowledge and justified belief are part of a broader veritistic epistemology making true belief the chief epistemic value and goal of science. The veritistic interpretation advanced here contrasts with interpretations on which the chief epistemic value of belief is its empirical adequacy, stability, or fulfilment of a natural function, as well as with the suggestion that the chief value of belief is its utility for common life. Veritistic interpretations are offered of the natural function of belief, the rules of causal inference, scepticism about body and matter, and the criteria of justification. As Schmitt shows, there is much attention to Hume's sources in Locke and to the complexities of his epistemic vocabulary.
Released on 2020-05-21Categories Religion

Tanakh Epistemology

Tanakh Epistemology

Author: Douglas Yoder

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781108580403

Category: Religion

Page:

View: 221

In this volume, Douglas Yoder uses the tools of modern and postmodern philosophy and biblical criticism to elucidate the epistemology of the Tanakh, the collection of writings that comprise the Hebrew Bible. Despite the conceptual sophistication of the Tanakh, its epistemology has been overlooked in both religious and secular hermeneutics. The concept of revelation, the genre of apocalypse, and critiques of ideology and theory are all found within or derive from epistemic texts of the Tanakh. Yoder examines how philosophers such as Spinoza, Hume, and Kant interacted with such matters. He also explores how the motifs of writing, reading, interpretation, image, and animals, topics that figure prominently in the work of Derrida, Foucault, and Nietzsche, appear also in the Tanakh. An understanding of Tanakh epistemology, he concludes, can lead to new appraisals of religious and secular life throughout the modern world.
Released on 2007-08-30Categories Religion

The Bible and the Crisis of Meaning

The Bible and the Crisis of Meaning

Author: Christopher Spinks

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9780567185396

Category: Religion

Page: 224

View: 531

Many of the most pressing issues in theology and the church today depend greatly on the understanding of the bible. Recent debates on the theological interpretation of scripture have emerged which consider whether the meaning of scripture should concern theologians and church leaders at all. The Bible and the Crisis of Meaning is an account of these debates in examining the concept of meaning in current proposals of theological interpretation. The concept of meaning is educed either from the supposed nature of the texts and their authors or from the function of the texts in religious communities. Thus, approaches to theological interpretation become debates between ontological and pragmatic strategists. Stephen Fowl and Kevin Vanhoozer have embraced the term "theological interpretation" for their separate projects, but their ideas of what this means and how "meaning" is a part of it, differ greatly. Christopher Spinks describes their respective concepts of meaning and argues for a more holistic concept that allows theological interpreters to understand their craft not so much as a discovery of intentions or the creation of interests but as a conversation in which truth is mediated.
Released on 2008-08-08Categories Philosophy

Quine's Naturalism

Quine's Naturalism

Author: Paul A. Gregory

Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing

ISBN: 9781441111456

Category: Philosophy

Page: 156

View: 447

W. V. Quine was the most important naturalistic philosopher of the twentieth century and a major impetus for the recent resurgence of the view that empirical science is our best avenue to knowledge. His views, however, have not been well understood. Critics charge that Quine's naturalized epistemology is circular and that it cannot be normative. Yet, such criticisms stem from a cluster of fundamental traditional assumptions regarding language, theory, and the knowing subject - the very presuppositions that Quine is at pains to reject. Through investigation of Quine's views regarding language, knowledge, and reality, the author offers a new interpretation of Quine's naturalism. The naturalism/anti-naturalism debate can be advanced only by acknowledging and critiquing the substantial theoretical commitments implicit in the traditional view. Gregory argues that the responses to the circularity and non-normativity objections do just that. His analysis further reveals that Quine's departure from the tradition penetrates the conception of the knowing subject, and he thus offers a new and engaging defence of Quine's naturalism.