Released on 2012-10-15Categories Psychology

Origins of Intelligence

Origins of Intelligence

Author: Sue Taylor Parker

Publisher: Johns Hopkins University Press+ORM

ISBN: 9781421410418

Category: Psychology

Page: 423

View: 823

A look at the origins of cognitive abilities in primate species. Since Darwin’s time, comparative psychologists have searched for a good way to compare cognition in humans and nonhuman primates. In Origins of Intelligence, Sue Parker and Michael McKinney offer such a framework and make a strong case for using human development theory (both Piagetian and neo-Piagetian) to study the evolution of intelligence across primate species. Their approach is comprehensive, covering a broad range of social, symbolic, physical, and logical domains, which fall under the all-encompassing and much-debated term intelligence. A widely held theory among developmental psychologists and social and biological anthropologists is that cognitive evolution in humans has occurred through juvenilization—the gradual accentuation and lengthening of childhood in the evolutionary process. In this work, however, Parker and McKinney argue instead that new stages were added at the end of cognitive development in our hominid ancestors, coining the term adultification by terminal extension to explain this process. Drawing evidence from scores of studies on monkeys, great apes, and human children, this book provides unique insights into ontogenetic constraints that have interacted with selective forces to shape the evolution of cognitive development in our lineage. “The authors’ elegant theory and comprehensive empirical synthesis of how the development of human intelligence and brain evolved opens up cascading heuristic avenues for creatively answering one of the great questions in the human history of ideas.” —Jonas Langer, Human Development “A handy source of information on comparative cognitive abilities related to life history and brain variables.” —James Anderson, Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute
Released on 2005Categories Philosophy

The Evolution of Intelligence

The Evolution of Intelligence

Author: James H. Fetzer

Publisher: Open Court Publishing

ISBN: 0812694597

Category: Philosophy

Page: 300

View: 832

Through a fascinating exploration of the mental abilities of species ranging from bacteria to mountain gorillas, noted science philosopher James Fetzer offers an important new theory of intelligence that is grounded in evolutionary theory and by which machines can be "intelligent" without possessing minds.
Released on 2013-06-17Categories FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

The Evolution of Intelligence

The Evolution of Intelligence

Author: Robert J. Sternberg

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9781135668457

Category: FAMILY & RELATIONSHIPS

Page: 401

View: 255

How is one to understand the nature of intelligence? One approach is through psychometric testing, but such an approach often puts the "cart before the horse"--the test before the theory. Another approach is to use evolutionary theory. This criterion has been suggested by a number of individuals in the past, from Charles Darwin in the more distant past to Howard Gardner, Stephen Gould, Steven Pinker, Carl Sagan, David Stenhouse, and many others. The chapters in this book address three major questions: 1. Does evolutionary theory help us understand the nature of human intelligence? 2. If so, what does it tell us about the nature of human intelligence? 3. And if so, how has intelligence evolved? The goal of this book is to present diverse points of view on the evolution of intelligence as offered by leading experts in the field. In particular, it may be possible to better understand the nature and societal implications of intelligence by understanding how and why it has evolved as it has. This book is unique in offering a diversity of points of view on the topic of the evolution of human intelligence.
Released on 1991Categories Science

The Ascent of Mind

The Ascent of Mind

Author: William H. Calvin

Publisher: Bantam

ISBN: 055335230X

Category: Science

Page: 302

View: 903

Investigates the rapid evolution of the ape brain into the hominid brain, and explains why understanding our evolutionary past can help us survive an uncertain future
Released on 2012-03-06Categories Science

Animal Architects

Animal Architects

Author: James L. Gould

Publisher: Basic Books

ISBN: 9780465028399

Category: Science

Page: 336

View: 556

Animal behavior has long been a battleground between the competing claims of nature and nurture, with the possible role of cognition in behavior as a recent addition to this debate. There is an untapped trove of behavioral data that can tell us a great deal about how the animals draw from these neural strategies: The structures animals build provide a superb window on the workings of the animal mind. Animal Architects examines animal architecture across a range of species, from those whose blueprints are largely innate (such as spiders and their webs) to those whose challenging structures seem to require intellectual insight, planning, and even aesthetics (such as bowerbirds’ nests, or beavers’ dams). Beginning with instinct and the simple homes of solitary insects, James and Carol Gould move on to conditioning; the “cognitive map” and how it evolved; and the role of planning and insight. Finally, they reflect on what animal building tells us about the nature of human intelligence-showing why humans, unlike many animals, need to build castles in the air.
Released on 1995Categories Psychology

The Thinking Ape

The Thinking Ape

Author: Richard Byrne

Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand

ISBN: 9780198522652

Category: Psychology

Page: 278

View: 207

"Intelligence" has long been considered to be a feature unique to human beings, giving us the capacity to imagine, to think, to deceive, to make complex connections between cause and effect, to devise elaborate stategies for solving problems. However, like all our other features, intelligenceis a product of evolutionary change. Until recently, it was difficult to obtain evidence of this process from the frail testimony of a few bones and stone tools. It has become clear in the last 15 years that the origins of human intelligence can be investigated by the comparative study ofprimates, our closest non-human relatives, giving strong impetus to the case for an "evolutionary psychology", the scientific study of the mind.
Released on 1973Categories Science

Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence

Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence

Author: Harry J. Jerison

Publisher:

ISBN: UCSD:31822011884244

Category: Science

Page: 504

View: 413

Evolution of the Brain and Intelligence covers the general principles of behavior and brain function. The book is divided into four parts encompassing 17 chapters that emphasize the implications of the history of the brain for the evolution of behavior in vertebrates. The introductory chapter covers the studies of animal behavior and their implications about the nature of the animal's world. The following chapters emphasize methodological issues and the meanings of brain indices and brain size, as well as the general anatomy of the brain. Other chapters discuss the history of the brain in the ...
Released on 2023-02-28Categories Science

The Human Evolutionary Transition

The Human Evolutionary Transition

Author: Magnus Enquist

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 9780691240756

Category: Science

Page: 0

View: 965

A major new theory of why human intelligence has not evolved in other species The Human Evolutionary Transition offers a unified view of the evolution of intelligence, presenting a bold and provocative new account of how animals and humans have followed two powerful yet very different evolutionary paths to intelligence. This incisive book shows how animals rely on robust associative mechanisms that are guided by genetic information, which enable animals to sidestep complex problems in learning and decision making but ultimately limit what they can learn. Humans embody an evolutionary transition to a different kind of intelligence, one that relies on behavioral and mental flexibility. The book argues that flexibility is useless to most animals because they lack sufficient opportunities to learn new behavioral and mental skills. Humans find these opportunities in lengthy childhoods and through culture. Blending the latest findings in fields ranging from psychology to evolutionary anthropology, The Human Evolutionary Transition draws on computational analyses of the problems organisms face, extensive overviews of empirical data on animal and human learning, and mathematical modeling and computer simulations of hypotheses about intelligence. This compelling book demonstrates that animal and human intelligence evolved from similar selection pressures while identifying bottlenecks in evolution that may explain why human-like intelligence is so rare.
Released on 2012-09-04Categories Science

Darwin Among The Machines

Darwin Among The Machines

Author: George B. Dyson

Publisher: Hachette UK

ISBN: 9780465046973

Category: Science

Page: 304

View: 364

As timely now as it was when it was first published in 1997, Darwin Among the Machines tells the story of humankind's long journey into the digital age. Historian of technology George Dyson traces the course of the information revolution, illuminating the lives and work of visionaries -- from Thomas Hobbes to John von Neumann -- who foresaw the development of artificial intelligence, artificial life, and artificial mind. Weaving a convincing, occasionally frightening narrative of the evolution of the global network, Dyson explores the limits of Darwinian evolution to suggest what lies ahead. Computer programs and worldwide networks are combining to produce an evolutionary theater in which the distinctions between nature and technology are increasingly obscured, he argues. We are living in the midst of an experiment -- one that echoes the prehistory of human intelligence and the origins of life. Now in a new paperback edition, this classic work on the emergence of collective mechanical intelligence will resonate for generations to come.
Released on 2009-04Categories Psychology

Evolutionary Intelligence

Evolutionary Intelligence

Author: Rolf W. Frohlich

Publisher: Xlibris Corporation

ISBN: 9781413409543

Category: Psychology

Page: 443

View: 876

Human nature holds the intelligence of life. It provides a psychology that is much stronger, more effective and more reliable than the psychology society teaches us. This psychology taps into the evolutionary survival experience of our species, which occupied most of human history. It was the period when the species evolved and our ancestor survived as a hunter and gatherer. More than 99% of human history is encoded in the DNA of our genes and lastingly etched into the human psyche. Our natural psychology, the human psyche, is the result of evolutionary adaptation. The psyche provides the genetic capacity for behavioral, mental and spiritual adaptation. It supports the gratification of our needs. And it contains the blueprint of human life. The book is about human nature and human survival. Human nature, that is, the human psyche, has survival value. The book introduces a metapsychology that refers to the Jungian archetypes and the survival capabilities inherent in the psyche. Like all living organisms and forms of life, we possess an innate capacity for survival. By awakening this evolutionary intelligence, we gain access to the primordial power and wisdom of the archetypal psyche. This innate psychology transcends the cultural conditioning that has shaped us all and erects an entirely different reference system making us look at life in a new way. We live in a world that reflects human nature and we are well equipped to survive in it. Beyond that, there is also something in us that resonates with a larger context. Our psychological constitution relates us to the outer realities of nature and cosmos. It is in this sense that we partake in the evolution of life on this planet and in the larger design of a cosmic universe. This primary psyche is shared by all humanity as part of a common biological and psychological history.