This is the first book covering an interdisciplinary field between microwave spectroscopy of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) and chronology science, radiation dosimetry and ESR (EPR) imaging in material sciences. The main object is to determine the elapsed time with ESR from forensic medicine to the age and radiation dose in earth and space science. This book is written primarily for earth scientists as well as for archaeologists and for physicists and chemists interested in new applications of the method. This book can serve as an undergraduate and graduate school textbook on applications of ESR to geological and archaeological dating, radiation dosimetry and microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Introduction to ESR and chronology science and principle of ESR dating and dosimetry are described with applications to actual problems according to materials.
This work presents a balanced approach to the ongoing debate of just how general the "general factor" of intelligence is. It covers various approaches to the topic, including the genetic-epistemological, behaviour-genetic, sociocultural, and psychometric approaches
The fundamental concept of quantum coherence plays a central role in quantum physics, cutting across disciplines of quantum optics, atomic and condensed matter physics. Quantum coherence represents a universal property of the quantum s- tems that applies both to light and matter thereby tying together materials and p- nomena. Moreover, the optical coherence can be transferred to the medium through the light-matter interactions. Since the early days of quantum mechanics there has been a desire to control dynamics of quantum systems. The generation and c- trol of quantum coherence in matter by optical means, in particular, represents a viable way to achieve this longstanding goal and semiconductor nanostructures are the most promising candidates for controllable quantum systems. Optical generation and control of coherent light-matter states in semiconductor quantum nanostructures is precisely the scope of the present book. Recently, there has been a great deal of interest in the subject of quantum coh- ence. We are currently witnessing parallel growth of activities in different physical systems that are all built around the central concept of manipulation of quantum coherence. The burgeoning activities in solid-state systems, and semiconductors in particular, have been strongly driven by the unprecedented control of coherence that previously has been demonstrated in quantum optics of atoms and molecules, and is now taking advantage of the remarkable advances in semiconductor fabrication technologies. A recent impetus to exploit the coherent quantum phenomena comes from the emergence of the quantum information paradigm.
Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors'' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.a
A comprehensive collection of papers on theoretical aspects of electronic processes in simple and synthetic metals, superconductors, bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors under extreme conditions, such as high magnetic and electric fields, low and ultra-low temperatures. The main emphasis is on low-dimensional conductors and superconductors, where correlated electrons, interacting with magnetic or nonmagnetic impurities, phonons, photons, or nuclear spins, result in a variety of new physical phenomena, such as quantum oscillations in the superconducting state, Condon instability, Skyrmions and composite fermions in quantum Hall effect systems, and hyperfine field-induced mesoscopic and nanoscopic phenomena. Several new experimental achievements are reported that promise to delineate future trends in low temperature and high magnetic field physics, including the experimental observation of the interplay between superconductivity and nuclear spin ordering at ultra-low temperatures, new observations of Condon domains in normal metals, and an experimental proposal for the realisation of isotopically engineered, semiconductor-based spin-qubit elements for future quantum computation and communication technology.
Psychological testing developed during the post world war II period. With students in mind, Kline has created features that ease them into more difficult ideas, always stressing the practical use of theoretical concepts. A clear introduction to the basics of psychological testing and their application in everyday educational, clinical and organizational settings. Written in response to a growing need for a reference book on psychological testing conducive to student learning, Psychological Testing provides readers with a clear and accessible introduction to the field. This book gives students an understanding of the basic concepts, issues, and tools used in psychological testing, and also illustrates how these are relevant in day-to-day educational, organizational and clinical environments. This book highlights all these aspects in great detail.
The present volume reaffirms nuclear physics as an experimental science since the authors are primarily experimentalists and since the treatment of the topics might be said to be "experimental." (This is no reflection on the theoretical competence of any of the authors.) The subject of high-spin phenomena in heavy nuclei has grown much beyond the idea of "backbending" which gave such an impetus to its study five years ago. It is a rich, new field to which Lieder and Ryde have contributed greatly. The article "Valence and Doorway Mechanisms in Resonance Neutron Capture" is, in contradistinction, an article pertaining to one of the oldest branches of nuclear physics-and it brings back one of our previous authors. The Doppler-shift method, reviewed by Alexander and Forster, is one of the important new experimental techniques that emerged in the previous decade. This review is intended, deliberately, to describe thoroughly a classic technique whose elegance epitomizes much of the fascination which nuclear physics techniques have held for a generation of scientists. This volume concludes the work on the Advances in Nuclear Physics series of one of the editors (M. Baranger), whose judgment and style characterize that which is best in the first ten volumes. Many of our readers and most of our authors will be grateful for the high standards which marked his contributions and which often elicited extra labor from the many authors of the series.