Man's understanding of how this planet is put together and how it evolved has changed radically during the last 30 years. This great revolution in geology - now usually subsumed under the concept of Plate Tectonics - brought the realization that convection within the Earth is responsible for the origin of today's ocean basins and conti nents, and that the grand features of the Earth's surface are the product of ongoing large-scale horizontal motions. Some of these notions were put forward earlier in this century (by A. Wegener, in 1912, and by A. Holmes, in 1929), but most of the new ideas were an outgrowth of the study of the ocean floor after World War II. In its impact on the earth sciences, the plate tectonics revolution is comparable to the upheaval wrought by the ideas of Charles Darwin (1809-1882), which started the intense discussion on the evolution of the biospere that has recently heated up again. Darwin drew his inspiration from observations on island life made during the voyage of the Beagle (1831-1836), and his work gave strong impetus to the first global oceanographic expedition, the voyage of HMS Challenger (1872- 1876). Ever since, oceanographic research has been intimately associ ated with fundamental advances in the knowledge of Earth. This should come as no surprise. After all, our planet's surface is mostly ocean.
The objective of this project is to obtain controlled empirical data on the short and long term settlement behavior of various shaped objects on the seafloor. Actual settlement is compared to that predicted by standard soil mechanic formulas. Data of this nature are essential for evaluating the reliability of standard soil mechanic formulas for predicting total settlement and sinkage rate of objects into the seafloor, and if necessary, for determining a more accurate method of predicting these phenomena in the marine environment. Such information is needed when designing any structure for placement on the seafloor or when trying to find and recover an object on the ocean bottom. (Author).
Oceanography is a component of Encyclopedia of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. These volumes deal with the oceans as an integrated dynamic system, characterized by a delicate, complex system of interactions among the biota, the ocean boundaries with the solid earth and the atmosphere. This set of volumes is designed to be a very authoritative reference for state-of-the-art knowledge on the various aspects such as: Physical Oceanography, Chemistry of the oceans, Biological Oceanography, Geological oceanography, Coral Reefs as a Life Supporting System, Human Uses of the Oceans, Ocean Engineering, and Modeling the Ocean System from a Sustainable Development perspective. These volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College students Educators, Professional practitioners, Research personnel and Policy analysts, managers, and decision makers and NGOs.
Resolution of the sixty-year debate over continental drift, culminating in the triumph of plate tectonics, changed the very fabric of Earth science. This four-volume treatise on the continental drift controversy is the first complete history of the origin, debate and gradual acceptance of this revolutionary theory. Based on extensive interviews, archival papers and original works, Frankel weaves together the lives and work of the scientists involved, producing an accessible narrative for scientists and non-scientists alike. This third volume describes the expansion of the land-based paleomagnetic case for drifting continents and recounts the golden age of marine geology and geophysics. Fuelled by the Cold War, US and British workers led the way in making discoveries and forming new hypotheses, especially about the origin of oceanic ridges. When first proposed, seafloor spreading was just one of several competing hypotheses about the evolution of ocean basins.
Seafloor Geomorphology as Benthic Habitat: GeoHab Atlas of Seafloor Geomorphic Features and Benthic Habitats, Second Edition, provides an updated synthesis of seabed geomorphology and benthic habitats. This new edition includes new case studies from all geographic areas and habitats that were not included in the previous edition, including the Arctic, Asia, Africa and South America. Using multibeam sonar, the benthic ecology of submarine features, such as fjords, sand banks, coral reefs, seamounts, canyons, mud volcanoes and spreading ridges is revealed in unprecedented detail. This timely release offers new understanding for researchers in Marine Biodiversity, environmental managers, ecologists, and more. Explores the relationships between seabed geomorphology, oceanography and biology Provides global case studies which directly focus on habitats, including both biological and physical data Describes ways to detect change in the marine environment (change in the condition of benthic habitats), a critical aspect for judging the performance of policies and legislation
The Sea Floor deals with the most important results achieved in Marine Geology over the last three decades. Relevant geophysical, geochemical, sedimentological and paleontological methods are shortly described. They should allow the reader to comment on new results about plate tectonics, marine sedimentation from the coasts to the deep sea, climatological aspects, paleoceanology and the use of the sea floor. The text tries to transmit to the reader the excitement of marine geological research both aboard and in modern laboratories. Basic mineralogical, geochemical, biological and other relevant data and a detailed list of books and symposia are given in an Appendix. The third corrected and revised edition contains an enlarged and updated list of references and some new figures.