With the SPARC (Scalable Processor ARChitecture) architecture and system software as the underlying foundation, Sun Microsys terns is delivering a new model of computing-easy workgroup computing-to enhance the way people work, automating processes across groups, departments, and teams locally and globally. Sun and a large and growing number of companies in the computer industry have embarked on a new approach to meet the needs of computer users and system developers in the 1990s. Originated by Sun, the approach targets users who need a range of compatible computer systems with a variety of application soft ware and want the option to buy those systems from a choice of vendors. The approach also meets the needs of system developers to be part of a broad, growing market of compatible systems and software-developers who need to design products quickly and cost-effecti vel y. The SPARe approach ensures that computer systems can be easy to use for all classes of users and members of the workgroup, end users, system administrators, and software developers. For the end user, the SPARC technologies facilitate system set-up and the daily use of various applications. For the system administrator supporting the computer installation, setting up and monitoring the network are easier. For the software developer, there are ad vanced development tools and support. Furthermore, the features of the SPARC hardware and software technologies ensure that SPARC systems and applications play an important role in the years to come.
The Technology of Sun M icrosystems Two years ago, Sun Microsystems began publishing a quarterly tech nical journal, Sun Technology: The Journal for Sun Users. Since then, its pages have explored in detail diverse technology and products relating to Sun. The journal's technically sophisticated readers are likely to apply the information published in the journal to their work. Sun Technology has been written by technologists for technologists. In the pages of The Sun Technology Papers, you will find an extensive selection of those articles. No other single volume offers you such a broad view of Sun-related technology and products. Yet this sweeping embrace of subjects does not diminish the level of detail in this collection. Short of Sun's 40 pounds or so of documentation, no other single source provides as deep and broad an understanding of Sun technology as this book does. Because Sun is a key developer in so many areas of computer technology, the book comprises four general sections. The first, "Soft ware," includes chapters on Open Network Computing, Sun's compil ers, SunOS and SPARC, and the Network Software Environment. The "Hardware" section covers SPARC in great detail and includes the most in-depth examination of the popular SPARCstation 1. This sec tion also contains chapters on the Sun386i workstation.
Not only does almost everyone in the civilized world use a personal computer, smartphone, and/or tablet on a daily basis to communicate with others and access information, but virtually every other modern appliance, vehicle, or other device has one or more computers embedded inside it. One cannot purchase a current-model automobile, for example, without several computers on board to do everything from monitoring exhaust emissions, to operating the anti-lock brakes, to telling the transmission when to shift, and so on. Appliances such as clothes washers and dryers, microwave ovens, refrigerators, etc. are almost all digitally controlled. Gaming consoles like Xbox, PlayStation, and Wii are powerful computer systems with enhanced capabilities for user interaction. Computers are everywhere, even when we don’t see them as such, and it is more important than ever for students who will soon enter the workforce to understand how they work. This book is completely updated and revised for a one-semester upper level undergraduate course in Computer Architecture, and suitable for use in an undergraduate CS, EE, or CE curriculum at the junior or senior level. Students should have had a course(s) covering introductory topics in digital logic and computer organization. While this is not a text for a programming course, the reader should be familiar with computer programming concepts in at least one language such as C, C++, or Java. Previous courses in operating systems, assembly language, and/or systems programming would be helpful, but are not essential.
This volume contains contains research and expository papers by African-American mathematicians on issues related to their involvement in the mathematical sciences. Little is known, taught, or written about African-American mathematicians. Information is lacking on their past and present contributions and on the qualitive nature of their existence in and distribution throughout mathematics. This lack of information leads to a number of questions that have to date remainedunanswered. This volume provides details and pointers to help answer some of these questions.
With its many beautiful colour pictures, this book gives fascinating insights into the unusual forms and behaviour of matter under extremely high pressures and temperatures. These extreme states are generated, among other things, by strong shock, detonation and electric explosion waves, dense laser beams, electron and ion beams, hypersonic entry of spacecraft into dense atmospheres of planets and in many other situations characterized by extremely high pressures and temperatures. Written by one of the world's foremost experts on the topic, this book will inform and fascinate all scientists dealing with materials properties and physics and also serve as an excellent introduction to plasma-, shock-wave and high-energy-density physics for students and newcomers seeking an overview. This second edition is thoroughly revised and expanded, in particular with new material on high energy-density physics, nuclear explosions and other nuclear transformation processes.
The IFIP TC6 WG 6.1 Joint International Conference on Formal Techniques for Networked and Distributed Systems, FORTE 2002, was held this year at Rice University, Houston, Texas, on November 11–14. This annual conference provides a forum for researchers and practitioners from universities and industry to meet and advance technologies in areas of speci?cation, testing, and veri?cation of distributed systems and communication protocols. The main topics are: – FDT-based system and protocol engineering. – Semantical foundations. – Extensions of FDTs. – Formal approaches to concurrent/distributed object-oriented systems. – Real-time and probability aspects. – Performance modeling and analysis. – Quality of service modeling and analysis. – Veri?cation and validation. – Relations between informal and formal speci?cation. – FDT-based protocol implementation. – Software tools and support environments. – FDT application to distributed systems. – Protocol testing, including conformance testing, interoperability testing, and performance testing. – Test generation, selection, and coverage. – Practical experience and case studies. – Corporate strategic and ?nancial consequences of using formal methods. A total of 61 papers were submitted to FORTE 2002, and reviewed by m- bers of the program committee and additional reviewers. The program committee selected 22 regular papers, two tool papers, and two posters for presentation at the conference. The program also included three tutorials and ?ve invited talks.
Every area of science and engineering today has to process voluminous data sets. Using exact, or even approximate, algorithms to solve intractable problems in critical areas, such as computational biology, takes time that is exponential in some of the underlying parameters. Parallel computing addresses this issue and has become affordable with the advent of multicore architectures. However, programming multicore machines is much more difficult due to oddities existing in the architectures. Offering insights into different facets of this area, Multicore Computing: Algorithms, Architectures, and Applications focuses on the architectures, algorithms, and applications of multicore computing. It will help readers understand the intricacies of these architectures and prepare them to design efficient multicore algorithms. Contributors at the forefront of the field cover the memory hierarchy for multicore and manycore processors, the caching strategy Flexible Set Balancing, the main features of the latest SPARC architecture specification, the Cilk and Cilk++ programming languages, the numerical software library Parallel Linear Algebra Software for Multicore Architectures (PLASMA), and the exact multipattern string matching algorithm of Aho-Corasick. They also describe the architecture and programming model of the NVIDIA Tesla GPU, discuss scheduling directed acyclic graphs onto multi/manycore processors, and evaluate design trade-offs among Intel and AMD multicore processors, IBM Cell Broadband Engine, and NVIDIA GPUs. In addition, the book explains how to design algorithms for the Cell Broadband Engine and how to use the backprojection algorithm for generating images from synthetic aperture radar data.
Hardware correctness is becoming ever more important in the design of computer systems. The authors introduce a powerful new approach to the design and analysis of modern computer architectures, based on mathematically well-founded formal methods which allows for rigorous correctness proofs, accurate hardware costs determination, and performance evaluation. This book develops, at the gate level, the complete design of a pipelined RISC processor with a fully IEEE-compliant floating-point unit. In contrast to other design approaches, the design presented here is modular, clean and complete.
Given the increasing role of intellectual property (IP) in academic research, it is important for academic scientists to gain greater awareness and knowledge of the various issues involved with IP resulting from their research and inventions. In addition, the line between academic and industrial research has been blurred, and a large amount of crossover exists due to corporate funding of academic research and collaborations between company and university laboratories. These and other factors have complicated the push toward technology transfer in universities. As commercialization has become inseparable from university research, there is now an essential need for academics to have a greater understanding of the processes involved. Intellectual Property in Academia: A Practical Guide for Scientists and Engineers fills this need, providing an indispensable source of information for researchers in academia. You’ve Just Invented a Gadget – What Now? Written by a select team of IP professionals, most of whom also have years of experience as scientists, this volume addresses IP issues relevant to the academic community—including ways to efficiently deal with the structural constraints inherent in the university environment. Scientists and engineers will benefit from the authors’ insights and their advice on how to establish good communication with university Offices of Technology Transfer. This perspective affords a common language and facilitates a smoother path through IP procedures. The book covers the best approaches to determine invention novelty by prior art searching and gives step-by-step guidance in using the best modern electronic patent databases. It presents a unique practical approach for assessing the monetary value of ideas and provides software for invention valuation, which can be used even during the early stages of an invention’s development. The book also discusses invention ownership, which is a crucial issue for scientists employed by universities. Get Answers to Your Questions about the Steps in Invention Commercialization Taking a more comprehensive approach than a basic how-to book on patent law, this reference answers inventors’ frequently asked questions about employment legislation as well as business and market estimation, invention priority registration, and other necessary steps for the successful commercialization of university inventions. It presents encouraging examples of academic patent successes, describing both the right moves and common mistakes made by scientists. It also provides practical advice on patent writing, filing, and prosecution, useful for both academic and industrial researchers. Other key topics addressed by the text include using copyrighted material, protecting material with copyrights, crucial IP legislation, business models, and new trends and changes in the U.S. patent office. In short, readers will find that this book provides a pathway for easing their journey through the IP process.