Standardization is a classic form of rulemaking. Nonetheless, it is notoriously diffuse and gives rise to questions and debate; in particular over the standards' normativity, legitimacy and nature - whether public or private, national or international. Moritz J. K. Blenk applies a policy-orientated approach to international law to comparatively analyze the role of private rulemaking within the context of international economic integration in the World Trade Organization and the European Union. He thereby aims to elucidate the opaque phenomenon of private standardization from a legal perspective and, more profoundly, shed new light on economic integration.
In this well researched book, the author explains the digital divide and its repercussions for developed and developing nations. In his view, the overzealous disciplining at the WTO-level of instruments affecting trade notwithstanding, developing countries still have important tools in their hands (intellectual property protection, competition policies, tax regimes) that can help them attract foreign direct investment, a crucial ingredient in reducing the current divide. Borrowing from the institutions that we have seen developed in international economic relations is highly recommended as well. In short, whether the divide will continue to persist or, conversely, whether it will gradually become a historical feature of international relations critically depends on the political will on both sides (of the divide). The author makes a persuasive argument to support his thesis, empirically researched and with strong foundations in theory. Petros C. Mavroidis, Columbia Law School, US and University of Neuch'tel, Switzerland This path-breaking book focuses on the WTO, e-commerce and information communications technologies. It sheds light on how international economic law can be used as a tool in the application of technological processes to facilitate development in developing countries. Rohan Kariyawasam begins by looking predominantly at the rise of international digital networks. He offers an introduction to the networks used in the delivery of electronic products and network-based transactions, and the application of WTO law to the sector. He then suggests how developing countries can use economic law and technology to tap digital markets in the developed world. The book also argues that the advance of basic living standards in some developing countries can be achieved through technological processes, but that this cannot happen without such states paying greater attention to the enforcement of economic, social and cultural rights at home. Picking up the property rights debate (including through bilateral trade), the author argues that ensuring beneficial technology transfer will require balancing foreign investor rights to protect intellectual property. It will also involve restrictions imposed by competition law and WTO surveillance to check the possible misuse of market power by multinational companies. The proposed mixture of measures should, he argues, provide incentives for Foreign Direct Investment. Providing a thorough review of the application of WTO law to the telecommunications sector and the regulation of international digital networks, this book will be of great interest to postgraduate students in international economic law and international development law, as well as those interested in human rights law and technology. It will also appeal to government regulators, NGOs and technologists interested in ICTs and development.
This paper (accepted for publication in the Journal of International Economic Law 15 (2012)) uses the term 'legal methodology' as referring to the conceptions of the sources and 'rules of recognition' of law, the methods of interpretation, the functions and systemic nature of legal systems like international economic law (IEL), and their relationships to other areas of law and politics. It begins with discussing six competing theories of justice justifying international economic regulation. This overview of theories of justice is followed by a discussion of competing moral, economic, political and legal conceptions of the 'primary' and 'secondary rules' of IEL. Due to the 'dual nature' of modern legal systems resulting from the universal recognition of human rights and of other principles of justice, legal positivism, natural law theories, social and policy conceptions of national, transnational and international legal systems must be applied in mutually coherent ways. As law and jurisprudence are less about 'truth' than about 'institutionalizing public reason', positive and normative legal arguments must respect legitimate 'constitutional pluralism' and 'reasonable disagreement' about interpretation and legal protection of civil, political, economic, social and cultural human rights as relevant context for interpreting IEL. The paper explains why, due to 'globalization' and the transformation of ever more national into transnational public goods, national Constitutions have become 'partial constitutions' that can no longer protect many public goods without international law and institutions. Constitutional and 'public goods' theories confirm that the five competing conceptions of IEL must be embedded into a multilevel constitutional framework limiting abuses of public and private power in all human interactions at national, transnational and international levels. The paper includes case-studies illustrating the need for comparative institutional research on which multilevel legal, institutional and regulatory approaches protect human rights, other cosmopolitan rights of citizens and related public goods most effectively. The obvious 'governance failures' in protecting interdependent public goods call not only for 'democratic empowerment' of citizens by cosmopolitan rights compensating the inadequate parliamentary control of multilevel governance by new forms of 'participatory', deliberative and cosmopolitan democracy. The obvious abuses of 'Westphalian conceptions' of 'international law among states' must also be limited by stronger multilevel judicial protection of cosmopolitan rights in order to hold governments more accountable for their failures to protect interdependent public goods more effectively.
The past two decades have seen a significant proliferation of trade and investment treaties around the world. States are increasingly negotiating agreements that regulate both trade and investment, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. The number of investor-state dispute settlement cases is growing dramatically each year, yet states' enthusiasm for investor-state arbitration has become more qualified as concern has intensified that the system can be abused by foreign investors. Good faith is therefore becoming increasingly important as a principle, particularly in the investment context, due to disputes about investor conduct such as corporate restructuring in order to gain the protection of a particular investment treaty regarding an existing or foreseeable dispute, and States' responses to public policy concerns through attempts to modify or terminate investment treaties in the face of ongoing or expected claims. Tribunals adjudicating investment disputes have used the principle of good faith in a haphazard and uncoordinated manner, causing serious problems of uncertainty and inconsistency. In response to these developments, this book contains the first comprehensive and integrated analysis of the treatment of good faith in international investment law, noting the broader implications of good faith in public international law and international trade law.
This book addresses concerns with the international trade and investment dispute settlement systems from a statist perspective, at a time when multilateralism is deeply questioned by the forces of mega-regionalism and political and economic contestation. In covering recent case law and theoretical discussions, the book’s contributors analyze the particularities of statehood and the limitations of the dispute settlement systems to judge sovereign actors as autonomous regulators. From a democratic deficit coupled with a deficit of legitimacy in relation to the questionable professionalism, independence and impartiality of adjudicators to the lack of consistency of decisions challenging essential public policies, trade and investment disputes have proven controversial. These challenges call for a rethinking of why, how and what for, are States judged. Based on a “sovereignty modern” approach, which takes into account the latest evolutions of a globalized trade and investment law struggling to put people’s expectations at its core, the book provides a comprehensive framework and truly original perspective linking the various facets of “judicial activity” to the specific yet encompassing character of international law and the rule of law in international society. In doing so, it covers a large variety of issues such as global judicial capacity building and judicial professionalism from an international and domestic comparative angle, trade liberalisation and States' legitimate rights and expectations to protect societal values, the legal challenges of being a State claimant, the uses and misuses of imported legal concepts and principles in multidisciplinary adjudications and, lastly, the need to reunify international law on a (human) rights based approach.
The past two decades have seen a significant proliferation of trade and investment treaties around the world. States are increasingly negotiating agreements that regulate both trade and investment, such as the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement and the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership. The number of investor-state dispute settlement cases is rapidly accumulating each year, yet states' enthusiasm for investor-state arbitration has become more qualified as concern has intensified that the system can be abused by foreign investors. Good faith is therefore becoming increasingly important as a principle, particularly in the investment context, due to disputes about investor conduct such as corporate restructuring in order to gain the protection of a particular investment treaty regarding an existing or foreseeable dispute, and States' responses to public policy concerns through attempts to modify or terminate investment treaties in the face of ongoing or expected claims. Tribunals adjudicating investment disputes have used the principle of good faith in a haphazard and uncoordinated manner, causing serious problems of uncertainty and inconsistency. In response to these developments, this book contains the first comprehensive and integrated analysis of the treatment of good faith in international investment law, noting the broader implications of good faith in public international law and international trade law.
The concept of state sovereignty is increasingly challenged by a proliferation of international economic instruments and major international economic institutions. States from both the south and north are re-examining and debating the extent to which they should cede control over their economic and social policies to achieve global economic efficiency in an interdependent world. International lawyers are seriously rethinking the subject of state sovereignty, in relation to the operation of the main international economic institutions, namely the WTO, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). The contributions in this volume, bringing together leading scholars from the developed and developing worlds, take up the challenge of debating the meaning of sovereignty and the impact of international economic law on state sovereignty. The first part looks at the issues from the perspectives of general international law, international economic law and legal theory. Part two discusses the impact of trade liberalisation on the sovereignty of both industrialised and developing states and Part three concentrates on the challenge to state sovereignty created by the proliferation of investment treaties and the significant recent growth of investment treaty based arbitration cases. Part four focuses on the domestic and international effects of international financial intermediaries and markets. Part five explores the tensions and intersections between the international regulation of trade and investment, international human rights and state sovereignty
This EYIEL special issue examines the interaction between international investment law and competition law. Although issues related to both international investment law and competition law arise regularly in international legal practice and are examined together, scholarly analysis largely treats them as parallel universes. As a result their actual and potential overlap has yet to be sufficiently explored. In this light, International Investment Law and Competition Law discusses a variety of topics at the intersection of investment and competition, including the interaction between competition-related provisions and investment protection standards in free trade agreements; investors’ anti-competitive behaviour and illegal investments; state aid schemes and foreign investors’ legitimate expectations; EU member States’ compliance with investment awards as (illegal) state aid under EU law; State-owned enterprises and competitive neutrality; and interactions between public procurement, investment and competition law.
This collection explores the theme of fragmentation within international economic law as the world emerges from the 2008 global financial crisis, the subsequent recession and the European sovereign debt crisis which began in early 2010. The post-crisis 'moment' itself forms a contemporary backdrop to the book's focus on fragmentation as it traces the evolution of the international economic system from the original Bretton Woods design in the aftermath of the Second World War to the present time. The volume covers issues concerning monetary cooperation, trade and finance, trade and its linkages, international investment law, intellectual property protection and climate change. By connecting a broad, cross-disciplinary survey of international economic law with contemporary debate over international norm and authority fragmentation, the book demonstrates that this has been essentially a fragmented and multi-focal system of international economic regulation.
This book examines the issue of foreign investor misconduct in modern international investment law, focusing on the approach that international investment law as it currently operates has developed towards foreign investor misconduct. The term ‘misconduct’ is not a legal notion, but is used to describe a certain phenomenon, namely, a group/class of actions. This term is convenient since it makes it possible to introduce and describe the phenomenon as such, without a division into concrete types of conduct, like ‘abuse of process’, ‘violation of national law’, ‘corruption’, ‘investment contrary to international norms and standards’, etc. The term ‘misconduct’ is intended to embrace various kinds of conduct on the part of foreign investors that the system of international investment law does not accept – such as that which it regards as illegal, against public policy, or otherwise inappropriate – and triggers legal consequences. Rarely, however, does international investment law clearly articulate what it considers unacceptable investor conduct, and certainly not in any systematic fashion. As such, this book addresses the following questions: What types of investors’ conduct are legally unacceptable? What mechanisms are available to deal with unacceptable investors’ conduct, and what are the legal consequences?