This book is proof that debugging has graduated from a black art to a systematic discipline. It demystifies one of the toughest aspects of software programming, showing clearly how to discover what caused software failures, and fix them with minimal muss and fuss. The fully updated second edition includes 100+ pages of new material, including new chapters on Verifying Code, Predicting Erors, and Preventing Errors. Cutting-edge tools such as FindBUGS and AGITAR are explained, techniques from integrated environments like Jazz.net are highlighted, and all-new demos with ESC/Java and Spec#, Eclipse and Mozilla are included. This complete and pragmatic overview of debugging is authored by Andreas Zeller, the talented researcher who developed the GNU Data Display Debugger(DDD), a tool that over 250,000 professionals use to visualize the data structures of programs while they are running. Unlike other books on debugging, Zeller's text is product agnostic, appropriate for all programming languages and skill levels. The book explains best practices ranging from systematically tracking error reports, to observing symptoms, reproducing errors, and correcting defects. It covers a wide range of tools and techniques from hands-on observation to fully automated diagnoses, and also explores the author's innovative techniques for isolating minimal input to reproduce an error and for tracking cause and effect through a program. It even includes instructions on how to create automated debugging tools. The text includes exercises and extensive references for further study, and a companion website with source code for all examples and additional debugging resources is available. *The new edition of this award-winning productivity-booster is for any developer who has ever been frustrated by elusive bugs *Brand new chapters demonstrate cutting-edge debugging techniques and tools, enabling readers to put the latest time-saving developments to work for them *Learn by doing. New exercises and detailed examples focus on emerging tools, languages and environments, including AGITAR, FindBUGS, Python and Eclipse.
This book scientifically tests the assertion that accommodative monetary policy can eliminate the “crowd out” problem, allowing fiscal stimulus programs (such as tax cuts or increased government spending) to stimulate the economy as intended. It also tests to see if natural growth in th economy can cure the crowd out problem as well or better. The book is intended to be the largest scale scientific test ever performed on this topic. It includes about 800 separate statistical tests on the U.S. economy testing different parts or all of the period 1960 – 2010. These tests focus on whether accommodative monetary policy, which increases the pool of loanable resources, can offset the crowd out problem as well as natural growth in the economy. The book, employing the best scientific methods available to economists for this type of problem, concludes accommodate monetary policy could have, but until the quantitative easing program, Federal Reserve efforts to accommodate fiscal stimulus programs were not large enough to offset more than 23% to 44% of any one year’s crowd out problem. That provides the science part of the answer as to why accommodative monetary policy didn’t accommodate: too little of it was tried. The book also tests whether other increases in loanable funds, occurring because of natural growth in the economy or changes in the savings rate can also offset crowd out. It concludes they can, and that these changes tend to be several times as effective as accommodative monetary policy. This book’s companion volume Why Fiscal Stimulus Programs Fail explores the policy implications of these results.
This book offers a series of statistical tests to determine if the “crowd out” problem, known to hinder the effectiveness of Keynesian economic stimulus programs, can be overcome by monetary programs. It concludes there are programs that can do this, specifically “accommodative monetary policy.” They were not used to any great extent prior to the Quantitative Easing program in 2008, causing the failure of many fiscal stimulus programs through no fault of their own. The book includes exhaustive statistical tests to prove this point. There is also a policy analysis section of the book. It examines how effectively the Federal Reserve’s anti-crowd out programs have actually worked, to the extent they were undertaken at all. It finds statistical evidence that using commercial and savings banks instead of investment banks when implementing accommodating monetary policy would have markedly improved their effectiveness. This volume, with its companion volume Why Fiscal Stimulus Programs Fail, Volume 2: Statistical Tests Comparing Monetary Policy to Growth, provides 1000 separate statistical tests on the US economy to prove these assertions.
The first comprehensive overview charting the accountability of higher education. As the price tag of higher education continues to rise, colleges and universities across the country are under increasing pressure to demonstrate their value. Graded on numerous metrics, including cost and ability to prepare students for the job market, colleges must satisfy requirements from multiple stakeholders. State and federal governments demand greater accountability. Foundations and private donors, as well as today's parents and students, approach education with a consumer sensibility. How can colleges navigate these pressures while trying to stay true to their missions and values? In Higher Education Accountability, Robert Kelchen delivers the first comprehensive overview of how colleges in the United States came to face such overwhelming scrutiny. Beginning with the earliest efforts to regulate schools, Kelchen reveals the rationale behind accountability and outlines the historical development of how federal and state policies, accreditation practices, private-sector interests, and internal requirements have become so important to institutional success and survival. With so many diverse and conflicting entities holding colleges responsible for their performance, the variety of accountability systems in play can have both intended and unintended consequences. Immersed as they are in current debates about how best to respond to these pressures, faculty and administrators will welcome this up-to-date and timely account, which offers not only a look at current practices but also an examination of the future of accountability in American higher education.
Exploring the complex arena of international planning for development has until now been uniquely the privilege of influential senior western planners. This book calls into question many of their hallowed principles and much of the conventional wisdom still evident in the halls of academe. At a time of increasing enrollment of foreign students in North American planning programs, the emergence of a new voice has coincided with a growing skepticism, worldwide, about old notions of planning and development in poorer and ex-colonial countries. Now there is a need for brave innovations to reshape our understanding of the global crisis and the potential for progressive and democratic local solutions in both rich and poor nations alike. This new voice is given expression by academics and professionals from Third World nations who received their planning education in the west and who now hold posts in major western planning schools. Breaking the Boundaries presents their views, and those of concerned colleagues, about the need for a radically changed curriculum based on a comparative, one-world approach to planning education. Their personal experiences as young expatriate scholars, and later as teachers of both Third World and First World students in western planning schools are seen as crucial to this need for change. Through candid reflections and perceptive critiques of their own field- the spatial, environmental, social, design and communications disciplines - the contributors explore crucial issues in development planning from theoretical and professional practice perspectives.
Since achieving independence from Spain and establishing its first constitution in 1824, Mexico has experienced numerous political upheavals. The country's long and turbulent journey toward democratic, representative government has been marked by a tension between centralized, autocratic governments (historically depicted as a legacy of colonial institutions) and federalist structures. The years since Mexico's independence have seen a major violent social revolution, years of authoritarian rule, and, finally, in the past two decades, the introduction of a fair and democratic electoral process. Over the course of the thirty-one essays in The Oxford Handbook of Mexican Politics some of the world's leading scholars of Mexico will provide a comprehensive view of the remarkable transformation of the nation's political system to a democratic model. In turn they will assess the most influential institutions, actors, policies and issues in its current evolution toward democratic consolidation. Following an introduction by Roderic Ai Camp, sections will explore the current state of Mexico's political development; transformative political institutions; the changing roles of the military, big business, organized labor, and the national political elite; new political actors including the news media, indigenous movements, women, and drug traffickers; electoral politics; demographics and political attitudes; and policy issues.
More than ever the international reference work for managers and specialists, the new Fourth Edition of this classic desktop guide defines how to plan, produce, control, and continually improve quality companywide for the 1990s -- from the executive suite to the factory floor.
The articles in this monograph provide a framework for reflecting on a variety of educational issues. In section one the historical roots of teacher education are examined. The second section deals more directly with what a teacher is and how the definitional properties of "the teacher" begin to dictate a curriculum for teacher education. The impact of regulation and testing on teacher education is the focus of the third section. The final chapter describes the nature of the federal government's involvement with teacher education. The following papers were selected from papers prepared for the National Commission for Excellence in Teacher Education: (1) "An Evaluation of the Rationale for Required Teacher Education: Beginning Teachers with and without Teacher Preparation" (Martin Haberman); (2) "From Quantity to Quality Teacher Education in Britain" (Harry Judge); (3) "Recent Reports on Education: Some Implications for Preparing Teachers" (Edward J. Meade); (4) "The Nebraska Consortium for the Improvement of Teacher Education" (Mary M. Kluender); (5) "The Implications for Teacher Education of Computer Technology" (Barbara Dubitsky); (6) "Preparing Teachers for Schools of Choice" (Mary Anne Raywid); (7) "Defining the Excellent Teacher Preparation Program" (Norma Nutter); (8) "Toward a More Desirable Profession" (Sharon P. Robinson); (9) "Testing Teachers for Certification and Recertification" (Eva C. Galambos); (10) "Performance-Based Certification in Georgia: Present and Future" (J. William Leach and Lester Solomon); (11) "Post Certification Development of Teachers and Administrators" (Richard C. Wallace); (12) "Quality Control of Teacher Preparation Programs through the Program Approval Process" (Herman E. Behling); and (13) "Excellence in Teacher Education: Options for a Federal Partnership" (David H. Florio). (JD)