Contents include: Introduction and Summary Public Policy Implications of Declining Old-Age Mortality Aging the Ability to Work: Policy Issues and Recent Trends Occupational Effects on the Health and Work Capacity of Older Men Involuntary Early Retirement and Consumption Life-Cycle Labor Supply and Social Security: A Time-Series Analysis Life Insurance of the Elderly: Its Adequacy and Determinant
Health & Economic Status of Older Women is a collection of research issues and data sources. This book is organized in three parts. Part 1 sets the stage for the more focused discussion of health and economic issues in the lives of old women that follows in Part 2. This first section contains papers by both Troll and Reinharz. Their papers - presented as keynote addresses in the conference - provide a historical context for the subsequent material. Both authors issue challenges to those who would focus their research efforts on older women. The second part of the book contains the substantive discussions of health and economic aspects of women’s lives. The final part contains discussions of research methodologies.
Age discrimination is a highly topical issue in all industrialised societies, against a background of concerns about shortening working lives and ageing populations in the future. Based upon detailed research, and adopting an interdisciplinary approach, this unique study traces the history of the age discrimination debate in Britain and the USA since the 1930s. It critically analyses the concepts of ageism in social relations and age discrimination in employment. Case-studies on generational equity and health care rationing by age are followed by an analysis of the British government's initiatives against age discrimination in employment. The book then traces the history of the debate on health status and old age, addressing the question of whether working capacity has improved sufficiently to justify calls to delay retirement and extend working lives. It concludes with a detailed examination of the origins and subsequent working of the USA's 1967 Age Discrimination in Employment Act.
What role should older workers play in our future work force, when the retirement of the baby boomers, starting about 2010, will make tight labor markets commonplace. This unprecedented demographic shift calls for a fundamental rethinking about the work force of the future. Employer attitudes and policies must change if older workers are to remain in the work force longer. This report recommends a "pro-work" agenda for employers, policymakers, and olders in 6 areas: getting the financial incentives right; replacing stereotypes about older workers; the training imperative; rethinking the org. of work; getting older workers into new jobs: and a strong and flexible safety net.
Americans are living longer—and staying healthier longer—than ever before. Despite the rapid disappearance of pensions and health care benefits for retirees, older people are healthier and better off than they were twenty years ago. In Health at Older Ages, a distinguished team of economists analyzes the foundations of disability decline, quantifies this phenomenon in economic terms, and proposes what might be done to accelerate future improvements in the health of our most elderly populations. This breakthrough volume argues that educational attainment, high socioeconomic status, an older retirement age, and accessible medical care have improved the health and quality of life of seniors. Along the way, it outlines the economic benefits of disability decline, such as an increased rate of seniors in the workplace, relief for the healthcare system and care-giving families, and reduced medical expenses for the elderly themselves. Health at Older Ages will be an essential contribution to the debate about meeting the medical needs of an aging nation.
This collection considers ways in which societal contexts influence aging by influencing self-regulatory processes. No one doubts that the social contexts in which individuals develop exert strong influence on life trajectories. Those born into environments that provide high quality education, supportive social relations, and economic assets do better in old age than those born into environments bereft of such resources. The extent of this influence, however, is only beginning to be revealed. Recent research shows that life experiences influence basic brain structures (e.g. the effect of musical training on neural organization) and functions (e.g. inflammatory processes), and that social embeddedness may even protect against Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, education increasingly appears to have a "real" effect on neural integrity. Thus, societal contexts may not simply open or close doors for individuals, but may influence self-regulatory processes at the most basic levels of functioning. Although social structures are generally seen as the independent variables that affect individual aging, it is also possible to think of a lifetime development of self-regulatory processes leading to behaviors in old age that can have impact on and modify societal structures. Two parts of this book consider self-regulation as the dependent variable, asking how social contexts influence cognitive, emotional, and self-regulatory processes. The third part reverses the question, treating self-regulation as the independent variable and retirement and physical health as dependent variables. In this part, consideration is given to how the effectiveness of self-regulation influences physical and economic outcomes in old age.
Observing that people change both physically and cognitively as they age, Posner suggests that each of us has, in succession, two separate selves - younger and older - with different abilities, interests, and behaviors, an insight that helps clarify a number of issues concerning the elderly.